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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ___ to ___
Commission File Number: 001-36632
https://cdn.kscope.io/23dbce553f2f416ec11cb56313ec94fc-tableofcontentsimage1.jpg
EMCORE Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
New Jersey
22-2746503
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
2015 W. Chestnut Street, Alhambra, California, 91803
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (626) 293-3400

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, no par value
EMKR
The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (Nasdaq Capital Market)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. ☐ Yes ☑ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act. ☐ Yes ☑ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. ☑ Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. ☐ Large accelerated filer ☑ Accelerated filer ☐ Non-accelerated filer Smaller reporting company Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statement of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant's executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). ☐ Yes No

The aggregate market value of common stock held by non-affiliates as of March 31, 2023 (the last business day of the most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $60.9 million, based on the closing sale price of $1.15 per share of common stock as reported on the Nasdaq Global Market. For purposes of this disclosure, shares of common stock held by officers and directors and by each person known by us to own 10% or more of outstanding common stock have been excluded. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for any other purpose.

As of December 9, 2023, the number of shares outstanding of common stock, no par value, totaled 77,172,167.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

In accordance with General Instruction G(3) of Form 10-K, certain information required by Part III hereof will either be incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K by reference to the Definitive Proxy Statement for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders filed within 120 days of the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 (the “2024 Proxy Statement”), or will be included in an amendment to this Annual Report on Form 10-K filed within 120 days of September 30, 2023.


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EMCORE CORPORATION
FORM 10-K
FISCAL YEAR 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page



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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). These forward-looking statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends affecting the financial condition of our business. Such forward-looking statements include, in particular, projections about future results included in our Exchange Act reports and statements about plans, strategies, business prospects, changes and trends in our business and the markets in which we operate. These forward-looking statements may be identified by the use of terms and phrases such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “could,” “estimates,” “expects,” “forecasts,” “intends,” “may,” “plans,” “projects,” “should,” “targets,” “will,” “would,” and similar expressions or variations of these terms and similar phrases. Additionally, statements concerning future matters such as our ability to continue as a going concern, our ability to regain compliance with the minimum closing bid price requirement of the Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”) within the applicable cure period, the expected costs and benefits of our restructuring efforts, our ability to manage our liquidity, expected liquidity, our plans to remediate the material weakness, development of new products, enhancements, or technologies, sales levels, expense levels, expectations regarding the outcome of legal proceedings, and other statements regarding matters that are not historical are forward-looking statements. Management cautions that these forward-looking statements relate to future events or future financial performance and are subject to business, economic, and other risks and uncertainties, both known and unknown, that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance, or achievements of our business or the industries in which we operate to be materially different from those expressed or implied by any forward-looking statements. You are urged to carefully review the disclosures we make concerning risks and other factors that may affect our business and future financial performance, including those made below under “Summary Risk Factors” and in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K as such risks and other factors may be amended, supplemented, or superseded from time to time by subsequent reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). These cautionary statements apply to all forward-looking statements wherever they appear in this Annual Report.

Forward-looking statements are based on certain assumptions and analysis made in light of experience and perception of historical trends, current conditions, and expected future developments as well as other factors that we believe are appropriate under the circumstances. While these statements represent judgment on what the future may hold, and we believe these judgments are reasonable, these statements are not guarantees of any events or financial results. All forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are made as of the date hereof, based on information available to us as of the date hereof, and subsequent facts or circumstances may contradict, obviate, undermine, or otherwise fail to support or substantiate such statements. We do not intend to update any forward-looking statement to conform such statements to actual results or to changes in expectations, except as required by applicable law or regulation.

SUMMARY RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to varying degrees of risk and uncertainty. Investors should consider the risks and uncertainties summarized below, as well as the risks and uncertainties discussed in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect us. If any of these risks occur, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

Our business is subject to the following principal risks and uncertainties:

we have incurred losses from continuing operations and our future profitability is not certain;
while the Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, we do not currently have sufficient working capital to fund our planned operations for the next twelve months and substantial doubt exists as to our ability to continue as a going concern;
we may not be able to obtain capital when desired on favorable terms, if at all, or without dilution to our shareholders, and the market price for our common stock has experienced significant price and volume volatility;
our secured credit facility contains restrictions that may limit our ability to pursue business opportunities as well as covenants that we may not satisfy, and that, if not satisfied, could result in the accelerations of outstanding indebtedness and limit our ability to borrow additional funds;
we may be unable to realize the level of the anticipated benefits that we expect from exiting businesses and restructuring our operations, which may adversely impact our business and results of operations;
our small size results in volatility in our cash flow, results of operations, and growth prospects, and we could experience revenue fluctuations due to our dependence on a few products for our success;
we are substantially dependent on revenues from a small number of customers and may experience fluctuations in the mix of products and customers in any period;
3

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we are subject to risks related to our acquisitions, including that (a) the revenues and net operating results obtained from the Inertial Navigation Systems business acquired from KVH Industries, Inc., the Space and Navigation business acquired from L3Harris Technologies, Inc., or any other acquired business may not meet our expectations, (b) the costs and cash expenditures for integration of these businesses’ operations or any other acquired business may be higher than expected, (c) there could be losses and liabilities arising from the acquisitions of these businesses or any other acquired business that we will not be able to recover from any source, and (d) we may not realize sufficient scale from any acquisition and will need to take additional steps, including making additional acquisitions, to achieve our growth objectives;
our operating results could be harmed if we are unable to obtain timely delivery of sufficient materials, components, or services, or if the prices of such materials, components, or services increase;
we face lengthy sales and qualification cycles for our new products due to the complexity of our products, and, in many cases, must invest a substantial amount of time and money before we receive orders;
our production could be disrupted and our results of operations and cash flows could suffer if our production yields are low as a result of manufacturing difficulties;
if we do not keep pace with rapid technological change, our products may not be competitive, and increased spending to develop and improve our technology may adversely impact our financial results;
pressure from competitors may result in price reductions and periods of reduced demand for our products;
a failure to attract and retain managerial, technical, and other key personnel could reduce our revenue and operational effectiveness;
our ability to achieve operational and material cost reductions and realize production efficiencies is critical to our ability to achieve long-term profitability;
any defects in our products may cause us to incur significant costs, divert management’s attention, or result in a loss of customers or product liability claims;
shifts in industry demand and inventories could result in significant inventory write-downs;
our former operations in China and significant international sales may expose us to risks inherent in doing business in these geographies;
our business may be materially harmed if we fail to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights or are unable to successfully defend against claims of infringement of the rights of others;
we could be subject to legal consequences if we fail to comply with the Modified Partial Award issued in connection with the proceedings commenced against us by Phoenix Navigation Components, LLC (“Phoenix”);
a cyberattack or other failure or security breach of our information technology infrastructure, or the theft, loss or misuse of personal data, could adversely affect our business and operations;
our government contracts are subject to risks of budgetary constraints or spending reductions and may subject us to governmental audits, investigations, or other scrutiny that could adversely affect our business, and the types of sales contracts we use in the markets we serve subject us to unique risks in each of those markets;
our costs of compliance, or failure to comply, with applicable state, federal, and international legal and regulatory requirements, as well as risks to related litigation, could increase our operating costs and adversely affect our business;
we have identified a material weakness in our system of internal controls over financial reporting and have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of September 30, 2023. If we fail to properly remediate the material weakness or any future deficiencies or material weaknesses or to maintain proper and effective internal controls, material misstatements in our financial statements could occur and impair our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements and could adversely affect investor confidence in our financial reports, which could negatively affect our business;
we may undergo an “ownership change” within the meaning of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code, which could affect our ability to offset U.S. federal income tax against our net operating losses and certain of our tax credit carryovers;
if we fail to satisfy all applicable Nasdaq continued listing requirements, including the $1.00 minimum closing bid price requirement, our common stock may be delisted from Nasdaq, which could have an adverse impact on the liquidity and market price of our common stock; and
the effects of general economic and market conditions, natural disasters, public health crises, epidemics, pandemics, or similar events are uncertain and could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows, and we are subject to risks associated with the availability and coverage of insurance.

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PART I.

ITEM 1. Business.

Organization

EMCORE Corporation, together with its subsidiaries (referred to herein as the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “EMCORE”), was established in 1986 as a New Jersey corporation. We became publicly traded in 1997 and are listed on the Nasdaq Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol EMKR. Our headquarters and principal executive offices are located in Alhambra, California. For specific information about products or the markets served please visit our website at https://www.emcore.com. The information contained in or linked to our website is not a part of, nor incorporated by reference into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K or a part of any other report or filing with the SEC.

Description of the Business

We are a leading provider of sensors and navigation systems for the aerospace and defense market. Over the last five years, EMCORE has expanded its scale and portfolio of inertial sensor products through the acquisitions of Systron Donner Inertial, Inc. (“SDI”) in June 2019, the Space and Navigation business of L3Harris Technologies, Inc. (“S&N”) in April 2022, and the FOG and Inertial Navigation Systems business of KVH Industries, Inc. (“EMCORE Chicago”) in August 2022. Our multi-year transition from a broadband company to an inertial navigation company has now been completed following the sale of our cable TV, wireless, sensing and defense optoelectronics business lines and the shutdown of our chips business line and indium phosphide wafer fabrication operations.

We have fully vertically-integrated manufacturing capability at our headquarters in Alhambra, CA, and at our facilities in Budd Lake, NJ, Concord, CA, and Tinley Park, IL. These facilities support our manufacturing strategy for Fiber Optic Gyroscope (“FOG”), Ring Laser Gyro (“RLG”), Photonic Integrated Chip (“PIC”), and Quartz Micro Electro-Mechanical System (“QMEMS”) products for inertial navigation. Our manufacturing facilities maintain ISO 9001 quality management certification, and we are AS9100 aerospace quality certified at our facilities in Alhambra, CA, Concord, CA, and Budd Lake, NJ. Our best-in-class components and systems support a broad array of inertial navigation applications.

Our operations include wafer fabrication (lithium niobate and quartz), device design and production, fiber optic module and subsystem design and manufacture, and PIC-based and QMEMS-based component design and manufacture. Many of our manufacturing operations are computer-monitored or controlled to enhance production output and statistical control. Our manufacturing processes involve extensive quality assurance systems and performance testing.

Principal Products and Markets

We have one reporting segment, Inertial Navigation, whose product technology categories include: (a) FOG, (b) QMEMS, and (c) RLG, in each case which serve the aerospace and defense market.

Through our vertically-integrated infrastructure, we have adapted the same technologies, chip designs, and production assets applicable to our former cable TV products to our closed-loop FOG products. EMCORE’s patented PIC significantly advances FOG technology in our open-loop FOG products with a planar optical chip that replaces individual fiber optic components for easy integration and outstanding repeatability unit-to-unit. Our SDI QMEMS technology uses a one-piece, inertial sensing element to measure angular rotational velocity and is micro-machined using sophisticated photolithographic processes which are at the forefront of Micro Electro Mechanical System (“MEMS”) technology. Our advanced RLG technology delivers high performance, reliability, and quality pointing and position capability for land navigation and is deployed on key programs including the Multiple Launch Rocket System (“MLRS”) and High-Mobility Artillery Rocket System (“HIMARS”). These technologies have broad applications within the aerospace and defense markets for high-value-added products for land, sea, air, and space navigation.

FOG - Our FOG technologies have received multiple U.S. patents and have been qualified for several key military programs for applications including unmanned aerial systems, line-of-site stabilization, aviation, and aeronautics. Our FOG products range from tactical to navigation grade gyros, inertial measurement units (“IMU”) and inertial navigation systems (“INS”) where performance specifications improve depending on the grade, giving customers the flexibility to choose the product and performance level that best meets their application. Our FOG-based IMUs can deliver performance up to strategic grade and along with our INS provide compelling size, weight, and power (“SWaP”) performance compared to competing units and legacy designs to deliver high precision and better performance in compact, portable form factors.

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QMEMS - Our QMEMS gyroscopes, accelerometers, IMUs, and INS products deliver SWaP performance and cost advantages over alternative technologies. With our experience in these technologies, we are developing leading-edge disciplines which are enabling advanced performance capabilities in mission-critical applications worldwide. Our QMEMS products have no moving parts, no friction, no known modes of wear out, and require no recalibration or rebuilding. They deliver industry-leading reliability under demanding conditions through dedicated engineering technology and manufacturing operations excellence. Our QMEMS products provide precision system solutions and establish high standards for price and/or performance characteristics across guidance, navigation, control, pointing, and stabilization applications in commercial and military aircraft, unmanned autonomous vehicles, land vehicles, precision-guided weapons, and industrial and marine platforms.

RLG - Our line of INS includes the advanced RLG-based products of S&N, which provide increased performance, reliability, and quality pointing and position capability for land navigation systems including Artillery/Radar Positioning & Pointing Systems and Battlefield/Artillery Survey Systems. Partnered with the U.S. Army and deployed on key programs including the MLRS and HIMARS, our combat-proven precision RLG product family delivers mission-critical information such as survey, pointing, and position to the U.S. military for precise, indirect mass fire and counter-fire operations.

Strategic Plan

Our strategy is to continue pioneering development of inertial sensing and navigation systems serving the aerospace and defense market. We aim to design and build innovative products that are valued by our customers with the intention to grow our product line using innovative technology. We seek solutions that maximize performance in transformative aerospace and defense systems.

Our industry is characterized by rapid changes in process technologies with increasing levels of functional integration. Research and development efforts focus on maintaining our technological competitive edge to improve the quality and features of existing products. We strive to design new proprietary production technologies and products, improving the performance of existing materials, components, and subsystems, and reducing costs in the product manufacturing process. Many projects have focused on developing lower-cost versions of our existing products. In view of the high cost of development, we solicit research and development contracts that provide opportunities to enhance our core technology base and promote the commercialization of targeted products.

Distribution Methods

We sell products worldwide through multiple channels made up of our direct sales force, application engineers, third-party sales representatives, and distributors. Our sales force is aligned according to product line to maximize expertise. We communicate with customers’ engineering, manufacturing, and purchasing personnel throughout the sales cycle to provide optimized customer solutions through product design, qualifications, performance, and price. As a result, we develop strategic and long-lasting customer relationships with tailored products and services. Marketing efforts are focused on increasing brand awareness, communicating our technological advantages, and generating leads. We use a variety of marketing methods including our website and e-marketing, participation at trade shows, press releases and media relations, selective advertising, and social media to achieve these goals.

Competitive Business Conditions, Our Competitive Position in the Industry, and Methods of Competition

The markets we serve are extremely competitive and characterized by rapid technological change. Primary competitive factors are product cost, yield, throughput, performance, reliability, breadth of product line, product reputation, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty to competitors’ technologies. We face competition from numerous domestic and international companies, who may have significant engineering, manufacturing, marketing, and financial resources. In addition, competitors may develop enhancements to, or future generations of, products that offer superior price and performance characteristics.

Although our markets are competitive, there are substantial barriers to entry. These barriers include significant dependence on existing patents, the time and costs required to develop products, the technical difficulty in manufacturing semiconductor-based products, the lengthy sales and qualification cycles, and the difficulties in hiring and retaining skilled employees with the required scientific and technical backgrounds.

We sell products to current and future potential competitors. As the markets for our products grow, new competitors are likely to emerge and current competitors may increase their market share. In the European Union (“EU”) and certain countries throughout the world, political and legal arrangements encourage the purchase of domestically produced goods which places us at a disadvantage in those regions or countries.

Sources and Availability of Raw Materials and Principal Suppliers
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We depend on a limited number of suppliers for certain raw materials, components, and equipment. Supplier relationships are reviewed to mitigate risks and lower costs, especially where we depend on a few suppliers for critical components or raw materials. Communications with suppliers are ongoing to prevent interruptions and our supply chain management is focused on maintaining quality while lowering purchase prices through standardized purchasing efficiencies and design requirements. We strive to limit inventories to levels sufficient to meet near-term needs. In the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, the majority of production for our Broadband segment, while still a part of EMCORE, was through our contract manufacturers, while all of our Inertial Navigation related production was through our vertically-integrated manufacturing operations.

Dependence on Major Customers

Our major customers include L3 Harris and Lockheed Martin, each of whom represented greater than 10% of consolidated revenue in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023. See Note 15 – Revenue Information in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about significant customers.

Patents and Trademarks

As of September 30, 2023, we held approximately 35 U.S. patents and approximately 33 foreign patents and approximately 31 additional patent applications are pending. The issued patents cover various products in the major markets we serve. Our U.S. patents will expire on varying dates between 2023 and 2039. These patents and patent applications claim protection for various aspects of current or planned commercial versions of our materials, components, subsystems, and systems. We also register our trademarks in the United States and other key international markets where we do business.

Effect of Governmental Regulations on the Business

We operate globally and are subject to numerous U.S. federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations covering a wide variety of subject matters. These laws and regulations are subject to change, and any such change may require us to improve our technologies, incur expenditures, or both, in order to comply with such laws and regulations. We are subject to rules promulgated by the SEC pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act regarding the use of “conflict minerals”. These rules have imposed and will continue to impose additional costs and may introduce new risks related to the ability to verify the origin of any “conflict minerals” used in our products. For information about governmental regulations applicable to our business, refer to Item 1A, “Risk Factors” included elsewhere in this Annual Report.

Costs and Effects of Compliance with Environmental Laws (Federal, State, and Local)

We are subject to U.S. federal, state, and local laws and regulations concerning the use, storage, handling, generation, treatment, emission, release, discharge, and disposal of certain materials used in research and development and production operations, as well as laws and regulations concerning environmental remediation, homeland security, and employee health and safety. The production of wafers and devices involves the use of certain hazardous raw materials, including, but not limited to, ammonia, phosphine, and arsine. We have in-house professionals to address compliance with applicable environmental, homeland security, and health and safety laws and regulations. We believe that we are currently in material compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations.

Human Capital Resources

Our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel is essential to continued success. Competition is intense in recruiting personnel within the high tech and aerospace and defense industries. We are focused on retaining key contributors, developing staff, and cultivating their continued commitment. As of September 30, 2023, we had approximately 371 employees, of which approximately 355 employees are located in the U.S., and approximately 350 are full-time employees.

Available Information

We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act. We file periodic reports, current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov that contains all of our information that has been filed or furnished electronically with the SEC. Available free of charge on the SEC website as well as our Investor Relations website at https://investor.emcore.com/ is a link to the Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable, after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC.
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ITEM 1A. Risk Factors.

You should carefully consider the risks described below, some of which have manifested and any of which may occur in the future, in addition to the other information contained in this report before making an investment decision with respect to any of our securities. Our business, results of operations, and financial condition could be materially and adversely impacted by any of these risks, which could in turn adversely affect our stock price. Additional risks not currently known to us or other factors not perceived by us as material risks could also present significant risks to our business.

Risks Related to Demand, Competition, Product Development and Manufacture, and Operations

We have incurred losses from continuing operations and our future profitability is not certain.

For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, we incurred a loss from continuing operations of $49.4 million and $40.8 million, respectively. Our operating results for future periods are subject to numerous uncertainties and we cannot be certain that we will be profitable or that we will not experience substantial losses in the future. If we are not able to increase revenue and reduce our costs, we may not be able to achieve profitability in future periods and our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be adversely affected.

While the Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, we do not currently have sufficient working capital to fund our planned operations for the next twelve months and substantial doubt exists as to our ability to continue as a going concern.

The consolidated financial statements included herein have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP assuming we will continue as a going concern. The going concern assumption contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. However, substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern exists.

We have recently experienced significant losses from our operations and used a significant amount of cash, amounting to a net loss of $75.4 million and net cash outflows from operations of $30.3 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, and we expect to continue to incur losses and use cash in our operations as we continue to restructure our business. As a result of our recent cash outflows, we have taken actions to manage our liquidity and will need to continue to manage our liquidity as we continue to restructure our operations to focus on our Inertial Navigation business. As of September 30, 2023, our cash and cash equivalents totaled $26.7 million and we had $9.9 million available under our Credit Agreement (as defined in Note 11 - Credit Agreement in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).

We are evaluating the sufficiency of our existing balances of cash and cash equivalents, cash flows from operations, and amounts expected to be available under our Credit Agreement, together with additional actions we could take (including those
made in connection with our restructuring program announced in April 2023) to further reduce our expenses and/or potentially raising capital through additional debt or equity issuances, or from the potential monetization of certain assets. However, we may not be successful in executing on our plans to manage our liquidity, including recognizing the expected benefits from our previously announced restructuring program, or raising additional funds if we elect to do so, and as a result substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern exists.

The consolidated financial statements included herein do not include any adjustments relating to the recoverability and classification of asset amounts or the classification of liabilities that might be necessary should the Company be unable to continue as a going concern.

We may not be able to obtain capital when desired on favorable terms, if at all, or without dilution to shareholders.

We operate in industries that make our prospects difficult to evaluate and predict. It is possible that we may not generate sufficient cash flow from operations or otherwise have the capital resources to meet our future capital needs. If this occurs, we may need additional financing to continue operations or to execute on our current or future business strategies, including to:

invest in research and development efforts, including by hiring additional technical and other personnel;
maintain and expand operating or manufacturing infrastructure;
acquire complementary businesses, products, services or technologies; or
otherwise pursue strategic plans and respond to competitive pressures.

If we raise additional funds through the issuance of equity or convertible debt securities, the percentage ownership of our shareholders could be significantly diluted, and these newly-issued securities may have rights, preferences, or privileges senior
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to those of existing shareholders. We cannot be certain that additional financing will be available on terms favorable to us, or at all. If adequate funds are not available or are not available on acceptable terms, if and when needed, our ability to fund our operations, take advantage of unanticipated opportunities, develop or enhance our products, or otherwise respond to competitive pressures could be significantly limited. Furthermore, in the event adequate capital is not available to us as required, or is not available on favorable terms, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives including, but not limited to, selling additional assets, exiting additional business lines, further reductions of our capital expenditures, delaying, reducing the scope of or eliminating one or more research and development programs, selling and marketing initiatives, and restructuring our existing debt obligations on new terms that may be less favorable than the existing terms, if available at all. If we are unable to manage discretionary spending, raise additional capital, or implement any of the above activities, as needed, we may need to further curtail planned activities to reduce costs, which could include additional reductions in workforce, additional eliminations of business activities and services, and further reductions in other operating expenses. Doing so could potentially have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, and future prospects.

Our secured credit facility contains financial and restrictive covenants that we may not satisfy, and that, if not satisfied, could result in the acceleration of any outstanding indebtedness and limit our ability to borrow additional funds. The credit facility also imposes restrictions that may limit our ability to pursue business opportunities.

Our Credit Agreement, dated as of August 9, 2022 (the “Credit Agreement”), among the Company, S&N, the lenders party thereto and Wingspire Capital LLC (“Wingspire”), as administrative agent for the lenders, subjects us to various financial and other affirmative and negative covenants with which we must comply on an ongoing or periodic basis. These include financial covenants pertaining to a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio and covenants requiring the mandatory prepayment of amounts outstanding under the revolver under specified circumstances. The Credit Agreement also subjects us to various restrictions on our ability to engage in certain activities, such as raising capital or acquiring businesses. These restrictions may limit or restrict our cash flow and our ability to pursue business opportunities or strategies that we would otherwise consider to be in our best interests. In addition, the Credit Agreement contains a cash dominion provision, requiring us to maintain a minimum amount of liquidity. As of September 30, 2023, this minimum amount of liquidity that we needed to maintain was $12.5 million. If we fall below this minimum amount of liquidity for a period of three consecutive days, or if there occurs an event of default under the Credit Agreement, then our lender can exercise certain rights, including taking control of our bank accounts and cash resources. In addition, if an event of default occurs under the Credit Agreement, our lenders can accelerate the maturity of our indebtedness under that agreement to make it due and payable immediately. If we trigger the cash dominion provision or if an event of default occurs under the Credit Agreement and if in either case our lenders elect to exercise their rights, we may not be able to pay our debts and other monetary obligations as they come due, and our ability to continue to operate as a going concern could be impaired, which could in turn cause a significant decline in our stock price and could result in a significant loss of value for our shareholders.

We may be unable to realize the level of the anticipated benefits that we expect from exiting businesses and restructuring our operations, which may adversely impact our business and results of operations.

From time to time, we may decide to exit certain businesses or otherwise undertake restructuring, reorganization, or other strategic initiatives to realign our resources with our growth strategies, operate more efficiently, and reduce costs. For example, on April 21, 2023, we announced the shutdown of our Broadband business segment and our defense optoelectronics product line and on October 11, 2023, we entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement with Photonics Foundries, Inc. and Ortel LLC (collectively, the “Buyer”) pursuant to which we agreed to transfer substantially all of the assets and liabilities primarily related to our cable TV, wireless, sensing and our defense optoelectronics product lines, including with respect to employees, contracts, intellectual property, and inventory (the “PF Transaction”). The successful implementation of our restructuring activities may from time to time require us to effect business and asset dispositions, workforce reductions, facility consolidations and closures, restructurings, management changes, reductions in investments, shut-downs or discontinuance of businesses, and other actions, each of which may depend on a number of factors that may not be within our control.

Any such effort to restructure or streamline our organization may result in restructuring or other costs, such as severance and termination costs, contract and lease termination costs, asset impairment charges, and other costs. In particular, we expect that material cash and non-cash charges will be incurred and recorded in our future reporting periods as a result of the shutdown of our Broadband business segment and the discontinuance of our defense optoelectronics product line. Also, with respect to the Buyer’s assumption of the Company’s manufacturing agreement with its electronics manufacturing services (“EMS”) provider for its cable TV products as part of the PF Transaction, we provided a guaranty of the Buyer’s obligations with respect to payment of certain long-term liabilities that were originally agreed to and set forth in the manufacturing agreement and assigned to the Buyer in the PF Transaction, in an aggregate amount expected to equal up to approximately $5.5 million, approximately $4.2 million of which will not become payable until January 2026, provided that if such guaranty is exercised by the EMS
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provider, we will have the right to require the Buyer to reassign to us all intellectual property assigned to the Buyer in the PF Transaction and we will have the right to recover damages from the Buyer.

Further, as a result of restructuring initiatives, we may experience a loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge and proficiency, adverse effects on employee morale, loss of key employees and other retention issues. Reorganization and restructuring can impact a significant amount of management and other employees’ time and resources, which may divert attention from operating and growing our business. Further, upon completion of any restructuring initiatives, our business may not be more efficient or effective than prior to the implementation of the plan and we may be unable to achieve anticipated benefits, including cost savings, which would adversely affect our business, competitive position, operating results, and financial condition.

We are a small company and dependent on a few products for success.

We are a small company with a narrow, focused portfolio of products. Our small size could cause our cash flow, results of operations, and growth prospects to be more volatile and makes us more vulnerable to focused competition. As a small company, we will be subject to greater revenue fluctuations if our older product lines’ sales were to decline faster than we anticipate. In addition, we may not be able to appropriately restructure or maintain our supporting functions to fit the needs of a small company, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We are substantially dependent on revenues from a small number of customers. The loss of or decrease in sales from any one of these customers could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

A small number of customers account for a significant portion of our revenue, and dependence on orders from a relatively small number of customers makes our relationship with each customer critically important to our business. For example, for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, sales to two customers accounted for an aggregate of 40% and 40% of total consolidated revenues, respectively. Revenue from any major customer may decline or fluctuate significantly in the future. We may not be able to offset any decline in sales from existing major customers with sales from new customers or other existing customers. Because of reliance on a limited number of customers, any decrease in sales from, or loss of, one or more of these customers without a corresponding increase in sales from other customers would harm our business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flows.

In addition, any negative developments in the business of existing significant customers could result in significantly decreased sales to these customers, which could seriously harm our business, operating results, financial condition, and cash flows. If there is consolidation among our customer base, customers may be able to command increased leverage in negotiating prices and other terms of sale, which could adversely affect profitability. If we are required to reduce pricing, revenue and gross margins would be adversely impacted. Consolidation among our customer base may also lead to reduced demand for our products, replacement of our products by the combined entity with those of competitors, and cancellations of orders, each of which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Although we are attempting to expand our customer base, the markets in which we sell our products are dominated by a relatively small number of companies, thereby limiting the number of potential customers. Accordingly, success will depend on our continued ability to develop and manage relationships with significant customers, and we expect that the majority of sales will continue to depend on sales of our products to a limited number of customers for the foreseeable future.

Future revenue is inherently unpredictable. As a result, operating results are likely to fluctuate from period to period, and we may fail to meet the expectations of analysts and/or investors, which may cause volatility in our stock price and may cause the stock price to decline.

Our quarterly and annual operating results have fluctuated substantially in the past and are likely to fluctuate significantly in the future due to a variety of factors, some of which are outside of our control. Factors that could cause quarterly or annual operating results to fluctuate include:

increases or decreases in the markets for customers’ products;
discontinuation by vendors of, or unavailability of, components or services used in our products;
disruptions or delays in our manufacturing processes or in our supply of raw materials or product components;
a failure to anticipate changing customer product requirements;
market acceptance of our products;
cancellations or postponements of previously placed orders;
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increased financing costs or any inability to obtain necessary financing;
the impact on our business of current or future cost reduction measures;
a loss of key personnel or the shortage of available skilled workers;
economic conditions in various geographic areas where we or our customers do business;
the impact of political uncertainties, such as government sequestration and uncertainties surrounding the federal budget, customer spending, and demand for our products;
significant warranty claims, including those not covered by suppliers;
product liability claims;
other conditions affecting the timing of customer orders;
reductions in prices for our products or increases in the costs of raw materials;
effects of competitive pricing pressures, including decreases in average selling prices of our products;
fluctuations in manufacturing yields;
obsolescence of products;
research and development expenses incurred associated with new product introductions;
natural disasters, such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods;
pandemics, including COVID-19;
the emergence of new industry standards;
the loss or gain of significant customers;
the introduction of new products and manufacturing processes;
changes in technology;
intellectual property disputes;
customs (including tariffs imposed on our products or raw materials, equipment, or components used in the production of our products), import/export, and other regulations of the countries in which we do business;
the occurrence of merger and acquisition activities; and
acts of war, terrorism, or violence and international conflicts or crises.

As a result of the foregoing factors, we believe that period-to-period comparisons of results of operations should not be solely relied upon as indicators of future performance.

The acquisitions of EMCORE Chicago and S&N, and acquisitions of other companies or investments in joint ventures with other companies could adversely affect operating results, dilute shareholders’ equity, or cause us to incur additional debt or assume contingent liabilities.

To increase business, maintain competitive position, or for other business or strategic reasons, we may acquire other companies or engage in joint ventures or similar transactions in the future. For example, in August 2022, we acquired EMCORE Chicago from KVH Industries, Inc. and in April 2022, we acquired S&N from L3Harris Technologies, Inc. The acquisitions of EMCORE Chicago and S&N, and any other acquisitions, joint ventures, and similar transactions that we may enter into from time to time, involve a number of risks that could harm our business and result in EMCORE Chicago, S&N, and/or any other acquired business or joint venture not performing as expected, including:

problems integrating the acquired operations, personnel, technologies, or products with the existing business and products;
failure to achieve cost savings or other financial or operating objectives with respect to an acquisition;
possible adverse short-term effects on cash flows or operating results, and the use of cash and other resources for the acquisition that might affect liquidity, and that could have been used for other purposes;
diversion of management’s time and attention from our existing business to the acquired business or joint venture;
potential failure to retain key technical, management, sales, and other personnel of the acquired business or joint venture;
difficulties in retaining relationships with suppliers and customers of the acquired business, particularly where such customers or suppliers compete with us;
difficulties in the integration of financial reporting systems, which could cause a delay in the issuance of, or impact the reliability of the consolidated financial statements;
failure to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, including a delay in or failure to successfully integrate these businesses into our internal control over financial reporting;
insufficient experience with technologies and markets in which the acquired business is involved, which may be necessary to successfully operate and integrate the business;
reliance upon joint ventures which we do not control;
subsequent impairment of goodwill and acquired long-lived assets, including intangible assets; and
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assumption of liabilities including, but not limited to, lawsuits, environmental liabilities, regulatory liabilities, tax examinations, and warranty issues.

We may decide that it is in our best interests to enter into acquisitions, joint ventures, or similar transactions that are dilutive to earnings per share or that adversely impact margins as a whole. In addition, acquisitions or joint ventures could require investment of significant financial resources and require us to obtain additional equity financing, which may dilute shareholders’ equity, or require us to incur indebtedness.

We expect to consider from time to time further strategic opportunities that may involve acquisitions, dispositions, investments in joint ventures, partnerships, and other strategic alternatives that may enhance shareholder value, any of which may result in the use of a significant amount of management resources or significant costs, and we may not be able to fully realize the potential benefit of such transactions.

We expect to continue to consider acquisitions, dispositions, investments in joint ventures, partnerships, and other strategic alternatives that may enhance shareholder value. The Strategy and Alternatives Committee of the Board of Directors and management may from time to time be engaged in evaluating potential transactions and other strategic alternatives. In addition, from time to time, we may engage financial advisors, enter into non-disclosure agreements, conduct discussions, and undertake other actions that may result in one or more transactions. Although there would be uncertainty that any of these activities or discussions would result in definitive agreements or the completion of any transaction, we may devote a significant amount of management resources to analyzing and pursuing such a transaction, which could negatively impact operations. In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with seeking such transactions or other strategic alternatives regardless of whether the transaction is completed. In the event that we consummate an acquisition, disposition, partnership, or other strategic alternative in the future, we cannot be certain that we would fully realize the anticipated benefits of such a transaction and cannot predict the impact that such strategic transaction might have on our operations or stock price.

The market price for our common stock has experienced significant price and volume volatility and is likely to continue to experience significant volatility in the future. This volatility may impair the ability to finance strategic transactions with our stock and otherwise harm our business.

Our stock price has experienced significant price and volume volatility for the past several years, and our stock price is likely to experience significant volatility in the future. The trading price of our common stock may be influenced by factors beyond our control, such as the volatility of the financial markets, uncertainty surrounding domestic and foreign economies, conditions and trends in the markets we serve, changes in the estimation of the future size and growth rate of our markets, publication of research reports, and recommendations by financial analysts relating to our business, the business of competitors, or the industries in which we operate and compete, changes in market valuation or earnings of competitors, legislation or regulatory policies, practices, or actions, sales of our common stock by principal shareholders, and the trading volume of our common stock. The historical market prices of our common stock may not be indicative of future market prices and we may be unable to sustain or increase the value of our common stock. We have historically used equity incentive compensation as part of our overall compensation arrangements. The effectiveness of equity incentive compensation in retaining key employees may be adversely impacted by volatility in our stock price. Significant declines in our stock price may also interfere with the ability, if needed, to raise additional funds through equity financing or to finance strategic transactions with our stock. In addition, there may be increased risk of securities litigation following periods of fluctuations in our stock price. Securities class action lawsuits are often brought against companies after periods of volatility in the market price of their securities. These and other consequences of volatility in our stock price which could be exacerbated by macroeconomic conditions that affect the market generally, or our industries in particular, could have the effect of diverting management’s attention and could materially harm our business.

Our operating results could be harmed if we are unable to obtain timely deliveries of sufficient materials, components, or services of acceptable quality from sole or limited sources, or if the prices of materials, components, or services for which we do not have alternative sources increase.

We currently obtain materials, components, and services used in our products from limited or sole sources. We generally do not carry significant inventories of any raw materials. The reliance on a sole supplier, single qualified vendor, or limited number of suppliers could result in delivery or quality problems or reduced control over product pricing, reliability, and performance. For example, during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, COVID-19 driven component shortages and delays required us to source critical components from alternative sources and, in some cases, to design in alternative parts and qualify them with customers on short schedules. Because we often do not account for a significant part of our suppliers’ businesses, we may not have access to sufficient capacity from these suppliers in periods of high demand. In addition, since we generally do not have
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guaranteed supply arrangements with suppliers, we risk serious disruption to operations if an important supplier terminates product lines, changes business focus, or goes out of business, and we may need large end-of-life purchases when a sole source supplier is ceasing manufacturing of required components. Because some of these suppliers are located overseas, we may be faced with higher costs of purchasing these materials if the U.S. dollar weakens against other currencies, or if import tariffs are imposed on these materials. If we were to change any of our limited or sole source suppliers, we would be required to re-qualify each new supplier. Re-qualification could prevent or delay product shipments that could adversely affect results of operations and cash flows. In addition, reliance on these suppliers may adversely affect production if the components vary in quality or quantity. If we are unable to obtain timely deliveries of sufficient components of acceptable quality or if the prices of components for which we do not have alternative sources increase, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.

Our products are complex and may take longer to develop and qualify than anticipated and we face lengthy sales and qualification cycles for our new products and, in many cases, must invest a substantial amount of time and money before we receive orders.

We regularly develop new products and use new technologies in these products. These products often take substantial time to develop because of the complexity, rigorous testing, and qualification requirements and because customer and market requirements can change during the product development or qualification process. Most of our products are tested by current and potential customers as part of the development and qualification process to determine whether they meet customer or industry specifications. The length of the qualification process, which can span a year or more, varies substantially by product and customer and, thus, can cause results of operations and cash flows to be unpredictable. During a given qualification period, we invest significant resources and allocate substantial production capacity to manufacture these new products prior to any commitment to purchase by customers. In addition, it is difficult to obtain new customers during the qualification period as customers are reluctant to expend the resources necessary to qualify a new supplier if they have one or more existing qualified sources. If we are unable to meet applicable specifications or do not receive sufficient orders to profitably use allocated production capacity, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be adversely affected.

Historical and future budgets for operating expenses, capital expenditures, operating leases, and service contracts are based upon assumptions as to the future market acceptance of our products. Because of the lengthy lead times required for product development and the changes in technology that typically occur while a product is being developed, it is difficult to accurately estimate customer demand for any given product. If our products do not achieve an adequate level of customer demand, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be adversely affected.

Our products are difficult to manufacture. Production could be disrupted and results of operations and cash flows could suffer if production yields are low as a result of manufacturing difficulties.

We manufacture many of our products in our own production facilities. Difficulties in the production process, such as contamination, raw material quality issues, human error, or equipment failure, could cause a substantial percentage of products to be nonfunctional. These problems may be difficult to detect at an early stage of the manufacturing process and are often time-consuming and expensive to correct. Lower-than-expected production yields may delay shipments or result in unexpected levels of warranty claims, either of which could adversely affect results of operations and cash flows. We have experienced difficulties in achieving planned yields in the past, particularly in pre-production and upon initial commencement of full production volumes, which have adversely affected gross margins. Because the majority of our manufacturing costs are fixed, achieving planned production yields is critical to results of operations and cash flows. Changes in manufacturing processes required as a result of changes in product specifications, changing customer needs, and the introduction of new product lines could significantly reduce manufacturing yields, resulting in low or negative margins on those products. In addition, transitioning to automation in certain manufacturing processes could result in manufacturing delays or significantly reduce manufacturing yields.

Manufacturing yields depend on a number of factors, including the stability and manufacturability of the product design, manufacturing improvements gained over cumulative production volumes, the quality and consistency of component parts, and the nature and extent of customization requirements by customers. Higher volume demand for more mature designs requiring less customization generally results in higher manufacturing yields than products with lower volumes, less mature designs, and requiring extensive customization. Capacity constraints, raw materials shortages, logistics issues, the introduction of new product lines and changes in customer requirements, manufacturing facilities, or processes or those of third-party component suppliers have historically caused, and may in the future cause, significantly reduced manufacturing yields, negatively impacting the gross margins on, and production capacity for, those products. Our ability to maintain sufficient manufacturing yields is particularly important with respect to certain products we manufacture, as a result of the long manufacturing process.
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Moreover, an increase in the rejection and rework rate of products during the quality control process before, during, or after manufacture would result in lower yields, gross margins, and production capacity. Finally, manufacturing yields and margins can also be lower if we receive and inadvertently use defective or contaminated materials from suppliers.

We also have substantial risk of interruption in manufacturing resulting from fire, natural disaster, equipment failures, acts of government, or similar events, because we manufacture most of our products using few facilities, and do not have back-up facilities available for manufacturing these products. We could also incur significant costs to repair or replace products that are defective and, in some cases, costly product redesigns and/or rework may be required to correct a defect. Additionally, any defect could adversely affect our reputation and result in the loss of future orders.

Some of the capital equipment used in the manufacture of our products have been developed and made specifically for us, may not be readily available from multiple vendors, and would be difficult to repair or replace if they were to become damaged or stop working. If any of these suppliers were to experience financial difficulties or go out of business, or if there were any damage to, or a breakdown of manufacturing equipment at a time when we are manufacturing commercial quantities of our products, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected.

If we do not keep pace with rapid technological change, our products may not be competitive.

We compete in markets that are characterized by rapid technological change, frequent new product introductions, changes in customer requirements, evolving industry standards, continuous improvement in products, and the use of our existing products in new applications. We may not be able to develop the underlying core technologies necessary to create new products and enhancements to our existing products at the same rate as or faster than competitors, to develop products that effectively compete with competitors’ products used in new applications or to license the technology from third parties that is necessary for our products. Product development delays may result from numerous factors, including:

changing product specifications and customer requirements;
unanticipated engineering complexities;
expense reduction measures we have implemented and others we may implement;
difficulties in hiring and retaining necessary technical personnel; and
difficulties in allocating engineering resources and overcoming resource limitations.

We cannot be certain that we will be able to identify, develop, manufacture, market, or support new or enhanced products successfully, if at all, or on a timely, cost effective, or repeatable basis. Future performance will depend on successful development and introduction of, as well as market acceptance of, new and enhanced products that address market changes, as well as current and potential customer requirements and ability to respond effectively to product announcements by competitors, technological changes, or emerging industry standards. Because it is generally not possible to predict the amount of time required and the costs involved in achieving certain research, development, and engineering objectives, actual development costs may exceed budgeted amounts and estimated product development schedules may be extended. If we are unable to develop, manufacture, market, or support new or enhanced products successfully, or incur budget overruns or delays in research and development efforts, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be adversely affected.

Increased spending to develop and improve technology may adversely impact financial results.

We may increase research and development and/or capital expenditures and expenses above our historical run-rate model in order to attempt to improve existing technology and develop new technology. Increasing investments in research and development of technology could cause our cost structure to fall out of alignment with demand for our products, which would have a negative impact on financial results. If we are unable to fund these types of expenditures, we may be unable to improve technology or develop new technologies, which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Further, our research and development programs may not produce successful results, and our new products and services may not achieve market acceptance, create additional revenue, or become profitable, which could materially harm our business, prospects, financial results, and liquidity.

The competitive and rapidly evolving nature of our industries and pressure from competitors with greater resources has in the past resulted in and is likely in the future to result in reductions in our product prices and periods of reduced demand for our products.

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We face substantial competition from a number of companies, many of which have greater financial, marketing, manufacturing, and technical resources than we do. Larger-sized competitors often spend more on research and development, which could give those competitors an advantage in meeting customer demands and introducing technologically innovative products before we do. We expect that existing and new competitors will continue to improve the design of their existing products and will introduce new products with enhanced performance characteristics.

The introduction of new products and more efficient production of existing products by competitors have resulted, and are likely in the future to result in, price reductions, increases in expenses, and reduced demand for our products. In addition, competitors may be willing to provide their products at lower prices, accept a lower profit margin, or spend more capital in order to obtain or retain business. These competitive forces could diminish our market share and gross margins, resulting in an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

New competitors may also enter our markets, including some current and potential customers who may attempt to integrate their operations by producing their own components or acquiring a competitor, thereby reducing demand for our products. In addition, rapid product development cycles, increasing price competition due to maturation of technologies, the emergence of new competitors with lower cost structures, and industry consolidation resulting in competitors with greater financial, marketing, and technical resources could result in lower prices or reduced demand for our products, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Expected and actual introductions of new and enhanced products may cause customers to defer or cancel orders for existing products and may cause our products to become obsolete. A slowdown in demand for existing products ahead of a new product introduction could result in a write-down in the value of inventory on hand related to existing products. We have in the past experienced a slowdown in demand for existing products and delays in new product development and such delays may occur in the future. To the extent customers defer or cancel orders for existing products due to a slowdown in demand or in anticipation of a new product release, or if there is any delay in development or introduction of our new products or enhancements of our products, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected.

Customer demand is difficult to forecast and, as a result, we may be unable to optimally match production with customer demand.

We make planning and spending decisions, including determining the levels of business that we will seek and accept, production schedules, component procurement commitments, personnel needs and other resource requirements, based on estimates of customer demand. While customers generally provide us with their demand forecasts, they are typically not contractually committed to buy any quantity of products beyond firm purchase orders. The short-term nature of customer commitments and the possibility of unexpected changes in demand for their products limit the ability to accurately predict future customer demand. On occasion, customers have required rapid increases in production, which has strained resources. We may not have sufficient capacity at any given time to meet the volume demands of customers, or one or more suppliers may not have sufficient capacity at any given time to meet our volume demands. Conversely, a downturn in the markets in which our customers compete can cause, and in the past has caused, customers to significantly reduce the amount of products ordered from us or to cancel existing orders, leading to lower utilization of our facilities. Because many of our costs and operating expenses are relatively fixed, reduction in customer demand would have an adverse effect on gross margin, results of operations, and cash flow. During an industry downturn, there is also a higher risk that a larger portion of trade receivables would be uncollectible. In addition, certain arrangements with component vendors require us to purchase minimum quantities of components within specific time periods, which could cause us to hold excess inventories of these components during periods concurrent with a decrease in customer demand for our products.

A failure to attract and retain managerial, technical, and other key personnel could reduce revenue and operational effectiveness.

Future success depends, in part, on the ability to attract and retain certain key personnel, including scientific, operational, financial, and managerial personnel. In addition, technical personnel represent a significant asset and serve as the source of our technological and product innovations. The competition for attracting and retaining key employees (especially scientists, technical personnel, senior managers, and executives) is intense. Because of this competition for skilled employees, we may be unable to retain existing personnel or attract additional qualified employees in the future to keep up with business demands and changes, and our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be adversely affected. The risks involved in recruiting and retaining these key personnel may be increased by our historical lack of profitability, the volatility of our stock price, and the perceived effect of previously implemented reductions in workforce and other cost reduction efforts.

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Our ability to achieve operational and material cost reductions and to realize production efficiencies for operations is critical to long-term profitability.

We have implemented a number of operational and material cost reductions and productivity improvement initiatives, which are intended to reduce our cost structure at both the cost of revenue and the operating expense levels. Cost reduction initiatives often involve the re-design of our products, which requires customers to accept and qualify the new designs, potentially creating a competitive disadvantage for our products. These initiatives can be time-consuming, disruptive to operations, and costly in the short-term. Successfully implementing these and other cost-reduction initiatives throughout operations is critical to future competitiveness and ability to achieve long-term profitability. However, we cannot be certain that these initiatives will be successful in creating profit margins sufficient to sustain our current operating structure and business.

Our products may contain defects that could cause us to incur significant costs, divert management’s attention, result in a loss of customers, and result in product liability claims.

Our products are complex and undergo quality testing and formal qualification by customers and us. However, defects may occur from time to time. Customer’ testing procedures involve evaluating our products under likely and foreseeable failure scenarios and over varying amounts of time. For various reasons, such as the occurrence of performance problems that are unforeseeable in testing or that are detected only when products age or are operated under peak stress conditions, our products may fail to perform as expected long after customer acceptance. Failures could result from faulty components or design, problems in manufacturing, or other unforeseen reasons. For the majority of our products, we provide a product warranty of one year or less from the date of shipment. As a result, we could incur significant costs to repair or replace defective products under warranty, particularly when such failures occur in installed systems. We have experienced failures in the past and will continue to face this risk going forward, as our products are widely deployed throughout the world in multiple demanding environments and applications. In addition, we may in certain circumstances, honor warranty claims after the warranty has expired or for problems not covered by warranty in order to maintain customer relationships. Any significant product failure could result in product recalls, product liability claims, lost future sales of the affected product, and other products, as well as customer relations problems, litigation, and damage to our reputation.

In addition, our products are typically embedded in, or deployed in conjunction with, customers’ products, which incorporate a variety of components, modules, and subsystems and may be expected to interpolate with modules and subsystems produced by third parties. As a result, not all defects are immediately detectable and when problems occur, it may be difficult to identify the source of the problem. These problems may cause us to incur significant damages or warranty and repair costs, divert the attention of engineering personnel from product development efforts, and cause significant customer relations problems or loss of customers, all of which would harm our business. The occurrence of any defects in products could also give rise to liability for damages caused by such defects. Although we carry product liability insurance to mitigate this risk, insurance may not adequately or entirely cover costs that may arise from defects in products or otherwise, nor will it protect us from reputational harm that may result from such defects. Costs incurred in connection with product recalls or warranty or product liability claims may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Shifts in industry-wide demands and inventories could result in significant inventory write-downs.

The life cycles of some products depend heavily upon the life cycles of the end products into which our products are designed. Products with short life cycles require us to manage production and inventory levels closely. We evaluate ending inventories on a quarterly basis for excess quantities, impairment of value, and obsolescence. This evaluation includes analysis of sales levels by product and projections of future demand based upon input received from customers, sales team, and management. If inventories on hand are in excess of demand, or if they are generally greater than 12 months old, appropriate write-downs may be recorded. In addition, we write off inventories that are considered obsolete based upon changes in customer demand, manufacturing process changes that result in existing inventory obsolescence, or new product introductions which eliminate demand for existing products. Remaining inventory balances are adjusted to approximate the lower of manufacturing cost or net realizable market value.

If future demand or market conditions are less favorable than estimates, inventory write-downs may be required. We cannot be certain that obsolete or excess inventories, which may result from unanticipated changes in the estimated total demand for our products and/or the estimated life cycles of the end products into which our products are designed, will not affect us beyond the inventory charges that we have already taken.

The types of sales contracts we use in the markets we serve subject us to unique risks in each of those markets.

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For most of our products, we do not have long-term supply contracts with customers and typically sell our products pursuant to purchase orders with short lead times, and even where we do have long-term supply contracts, customers are typically not obligated to purchase any minimum amount of our products. As a result, in most cases customers could stop purchasing our products at any time, and we must fulfill orders in a timely manner to keep them satisfied.

Risks associated with an absence of long-term purchase commitments with customers include the following:

customers can stop purchasing our products at any time without penalty;
customers may purchase products from competitors; and
customers are not required to make minimum purchases.

These risks are increased by the fact that our customers include large, sophisticated companies that have considerable purchasing power and control over their suppliers. If we are unable to fulfill these orders in a timely manner, it is likely that we will lose sales and customers.

The majority of our development contracts are for a fixed price, and fixed price development work inherently has more uncertainty than production contracts and, therefore, entails more variability in estimates of the cost to complete the work. Many of these development programs have very complex designs. As technical or quality issues arise, we may experience schedule delays and adverse cost impacts, which could increase estimated cost to perform the work, either of which could adversely affect results of operations. Some fixed price development contracts include initial production units in their scope of work. Successful performance of these contracts depends on the ability to meet production specifications and delivery rates. If we are unable to meet these contract requirements, revenue from these contracts could be reduced through the incorporation of liquidated damages, the contract could be terminated for default, and we could be subject to other financially significant consequences. We use our best judgment to estimate the cost to perform the work and the price we will eventually be paid on fixed price development programs. While we believe the cost and price estimates used to prepare the consolidated financial statements are appropriate, future events could result in unfavorable adjustments to those estimates which in turn would adversely affect results of operations.

We are subject to risks associated with the availability and coverage of insurance.

For certain risks, we do not maintain insurance coverage because of cost or availability. Because we retain some portion of our insurable risks, and in some cases self-insure completely, unforeseen or catastrophic losses in excess of insured limits may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Risks Related to International Sales and Operations

We previously had operations in China with respect to our Broadband business, which exposes us to risks inherent in doing business in China.

In an effort to keep costs down, we previously operated certain logistic functions with respect to our Broadband business in China, which operations were sold in connection with the Broadband transaction. Our previous China based activities were subject to greater political, legal, and economic risks than those faced by our other operations. In particular, the political, legal, and economic climate in China (both at the national and regional levels) is extremely volatile and unpredictable. We may be adversely affected by changes in, or any previous failure to comply with, Chinese laws and regulations, such as those relating to taxation, import and export tariffs, environmental regulations, land use rights, intellectual property, labor and employment laws, and other matters. Moreover, the enforceability of applicable existing Chinese laws and regulations is uncertain. For example, since Chinese administrative and court authorities have significant discretion in interpreting and implementing statutory and contract terms, it may be more difficult to evaluate the outcome of administrative and court proceedings and the level of legal protection we would receive. In addition, protections of intellectual property rights and confidentiality in China may not be as effective as in the U.S. or other countries or regions. All of these uncertainties could limit the legal protections available to us and could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations.

Also, if we are found to be, or to have been, in violation of Chinese laws or regulations governing technology import and export, the relevant regulatory authorities have broad discretion in dealing with such violations, including, but not limited to, issuing a warning, levying fines, restricting us from benefiting from these technologies inside or outside of China, confiscating our earnings generated from the import or export of such technology or even restricting our future import and export of any technology.

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We are required to pay income taxes in China subject to certain tax relief. In the event that we become subject to any increased taxes or new forms of taxation imposed by authorities in China, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

We have significant international sales, which expose us to additional risks and uncertainties.

For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, sales to customers located outside the U.S. and Canada accounted for approximately 23% and 7%, respectively, of consolidated revenue, with revenue assigned to geographic regions based on customers’ billing address. Sales to customers in Europe represent the majority of international sales. We believe that international sales will continue to account for a significant percentage of revenue as we seek international expansion opportunities. In addition, certain sales to customers with a U.S. billing address may be physically shipped to a location outside of the U.S. International sales and operations are subject to a number of material risks, including, but not limited to:

political and economic instability or changes in U.S. government policy with respect to the foreign countries where customers are located may inhibit export of products and limit potential customers’ access to U.S. dollars in a country or region in which those potential customers are located;
we may experience difficulties in enforcing legal contracts or the collecting of foreign accounts receivable in a timely manner and we may be forced to write off these receivables;
tariffs and other barriers may make our products less cost competitive or may reduce gross margin on these products;
the laws of certain foreign countries may not adequately protect our trade secrets and intellectual property or may be burdensome to comply with;
potentially adverse tax consequences to customers may damage cost competitiveness;
customs, import/export, and other regulations of the countries in which we do business may adversely affect our business;
different technical standards or requirements, such as country or region specific requirements to eliminate the use of lead, which we may incorporate into certain products, could prevent us from selling these products in these regions;
currency fluctuations may make our products less cost competitive, affecting overseas demand for our products or otherwise adversely affecting our business; and
language and other cultural barriers may require us to expend additional resources competing in foreign markets or hinder the ability to effectively compete.

Negative developments in one or more countries or regions in which we operate or sell our products could result in a reduction in demand for our products, the cancellation or delay of orders already placed, difficulties in producing and delivering our products, threats to our intellectual property, difficulty in collecting receivables, or a higher cost of doing business, any of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations. In addition, we may be exposed to legal risks under the laws of the countries outside the U.S. in which we do business, as well as the laws of the U.S. governing our business activities in those other countries, such as the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”).

Risks Related to Intellectual Property Rights, Litigation, and Cybersecurity

Failure to obtain or maintain the right to use certain intellectual property may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our industries are characterized by frequent litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights. From time to time we have received, and may receive in the future, notice of claims of infringement of other parties’ proprietary rights and licensing offers to commercialize third party patent rights. Numerous patents in our industries are held by others, including competitors and certain academic institutions. Competitors may seek to gain a competitive advantage, or other third parties may seek an economic return on their intellectual property portfolios, by making infringement claims against us. We cannot be certain that:

infringement claims (or claims for indemnification resulting from infringement claims) will not be asserted against us or that such claims will not be successful;
future assertions will not result in an injunction against the sale of infringing products, which could require us to cease the manufacture, use or sale of the infringing products, processes, or technology and expend significant resources to develop non-infringing technology, adversely affecting our business, results of operations, and cash flows;
any patent owned or licensed by us will not be invalidated, circumvented, or challenged; or
we will not be required to obtain licenses or pay substantial damages for past, present, and future use of the infringing technology, the expense of which may adversely affect results of operations and cash flows.
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For example, in June 2018, Phoenix commenced an arbitration against us with the American Arbitration Association (“AAA”) in New York and a special proceeding against us in the New York Supreme Court, Commercial Division. In June 2019, an interim award (the “Interim Award”) was issued in connection with certain of the claims in the AAA proceeding and in October 2019, the arbitrator issued a Modified Partial Final Award, which incorporated by reference the terms of the Interim Award and ordered and awarded, among other items, (a) an award to Phoenix of attorneys’ fees and costs in the amount of approximately $3.8 million, (b) an award to Phoenix of $1.0 million in damages owing for unpaid royalties through June 30, 2019, (c) an award to Phoenix of $0.1 million in prejudgment interest, calculated at the New York statutory rate of 9% simple interest; and (d) payment to Phoenix of a royalty of 7.5% of the sale price on (i) future customer payments for certain EMCORE product contracts entered into prior to the Interim Award and (ii) customer payments for future sales of any product using any of the five trade secret subparts deemed in the Interim Award to have been misappropriated by EMCORE (collectively, the “Deemed Trade Secrets”), in each case payable in a single lump sum within one month of completion of the calendar quarter in which payment has been received from the customer, subject to certain limitations, until such time as EMCORE has in good faith determined, and can so document, that it has completely ceased use of the Deemed Trade Secrets.

In addition, effective copyright and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in certain foreign jurisdictions. Litigation, which could result in substantial cost and diversion of resources, may be necessary to defend our rights or defend us against claimed infringement of the rights of others. In certain circumstances, our intellectual property rights associated with government contracts may be limited.

If we fail to protect, or incur significant costs in defending, our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, our business and results of operations could be materially harmed.

Success depends to a significant degree on the ability to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We rely on a combination of patent, trademark, trade secret, and unfair competition laws, as well as license agreements and other contractual provisions, to establish and protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights. We have applied for patent registrations in the U.S. and selected international jurisdictions, most of which have been issued. We cannot guarantee that pending applications will be approved by the applicable governmental authorities. Moreover, existing and future patents and trademarks may not be sufficiently broad to protect our proprietary rights or may be held invalid or unenforceable in court. Failure to obtain patent registrations or a successful challenge to our registrations in the U.S. or other foreign countries may limit the ability to protect the intellectual property rights that these applications and registrations are intended to cover.

We also attempt to protect our intellectual property, including our trade secrets and know-how, through the use of trade secret and other intellectual property laws, as well as contractual provisions. We enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with employees and independent consultants. We also use non-disclosure agreements with other third parties who may have access to our proprietary technologies and information. Such measures, however, provide only limited protection, and we cannot be certain that our confidentiality and non-disclosure agreements will not be breached, especially after employees end their employment or engagement with us or with them, and that our trade secrets will not otherwise become known by competitors or that we will have adequate remedies in the event of unauthorized use or disclosure of proprietary information. Unauthorized third parties may try to copy or reverse engineer our products or portions of our products, otherwise obtain and use our intellectual property, or may independently develop similar or equivalent trade secrets or know-how. If we fail to protect our intellectual property and other proprietary rights, or if such intellectual property and proprietary rights are infringed or misappropriated, we could lose our competitive advantage and our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows could be materially harmed.

Policing unauthorized use of our technology is difficult, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken will prevent the misappropriation, unauthorized use, or other infringement of our intellectual property rights. Further, we may not be able to effectively protect our intellectual property rights from misappropriation or other infringement in foreign countries where we have not applied for patent protections, and where effective patent, trademark, trade secret, and other intellectual property laws may be unavailable, or may not protect our proprietary rights as fully as U.S. law.

In the future, we may need to take legal actions to prevent third parties from infringing upon or misappropriating our intellectual property or from otherwise gaining access to our technology. Protecting and enforcing our intellectual property rights and determining their validity and scope could result in significant litigation costs and require significant time and attention from our technical and management personnel, which could significantly harm our business. The availability of financial resources may limit the ability to commence or defend such litigation. In addition, we may not prevail in such proceedings. An adverse outcome of such proceedings may reduce our competitive advantage or otherwise harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

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We may be obligated to indemnify customers and vendors for claims that our intellectual property infringes the rights of others, which may result in substantial expense to us.

We may be required to indemnify customers or vendors for intellectual property claims made against them for products incorporating our technology. As such, claims against customers and vendors may require us to incur substantial expenses, such as legal expenses, damages for past infringement, or royalties for future use. Future indemnity claims could adversely affect business relationships and result in substantial costs to us.

We face certain litigation risks that could harm our business.

We may become subject to various legal proceedings and claims that arise in or outside the ordinary course of business. The results of legal proceedings are difficult to predict. Moreover, complaints that may be filed against us may not specify the amount of damages that plaintiffs seek, and we therefore may be unable to estimate the possible range of damages that might be incurred should these lawsuits be resolved against us. If any litigation is resolved against us, we could be subject to substantial damages. Thus, an unfavorable outcome or settlement of one or more lawsuits may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Even if litigation is not resolved against us, the uncertainty and expense associated with unresolved lawsuits could seriously harm our business, financial condition, and reputation. Litigation is costly, time-consuming, and disruptive to normal business operations.

Costs of defending litigation have been significant in the past, may continue, and may not be covered by our insurance policies. The defense of litigation could also result in diversion of management’s time and attention away from business operations, which could harm our business.

We could be subject to legal consequences if we fail to comply with the Modified Partial Final Award issued in connection with the Phoenix legal proceedings.

In the Interim Award incorporated by reference into the Modified Partial Final Award the arbitrator determined and ordered that we are required to pay Phoenix a royalty of 7.5% of the sale price on (a) future customer payments for certain of our product contracts previously entered into at the time the Interim Award was issued and (b) customer payments for future sales of any product using any Deemed Trade Secret, in each case payable in a single lump sum within one month of completion of the calendar quarter in which payment has been received from the customer, and we are required to concurrently submit to Phoenix a written report that sets forth the calculation of the amount of the royalty payment in a form similar to previous royalty reports, provided that following the first $1.0 million of royalty payments on our EMP-1 product only, inclusive of payments made to date, we are required to pay to Phoenix a royalty of 2.25% of the sale price (net of any warranty work, returns, rebates, discounts, or credits) with respect to subsequent sales of our EMP-1 product. We are required to continue to make royalty payments in this manner until such time as we have in good faith determined, and can so document, that we have completely ceased use of the Deemed Trade Secrets, and must provide notice of this determination to Phoenix. It is possible that additional legal proceedings will follow in connection with delivery of this notice to Phoenix, which would require us to incur additional costs and divert management’s attention. If we fail to comply with these obligations, we could be subject to additional claims, penalties, or judgments, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, we could be subject to significant legal costs and expenses in connection with the interpretation of certain of the obligations pursuant to the Interim Award, which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business and operations could be adversely impacted in the event of a failure or security breach of our information technology infrastructure.

We rely upon the capacity, reliability, and security of our information technology hardware and software infrastructure and the ability to expand and update this infrastructure in response to changing needs. We are constantly updating our information technology infrastructure. Although we have a disaster recovery plan, any failure to manage, expand, and update our information technology infrastructure or any failure in the operation of this infrastructure could harm our business. In addition, we may be subject to a heightened risk of potential security breaches due to our sales to, and work with, government customers and the technologies that we develop for the defense industry.

The secure maintenance of this information is critical to our business and reputation. Despite implementation of security measures, systems are vulnerable to damages from computer viruses, computer denial-of-service attacks, worms, and other malicious software programs or other attacks, covert introduction of malware to computers and networks, unauthorized access, including impersonation of unauthorized users, efforts to discover and exploit any security vulnerabilities or securities weaknesses, and other similar disruptions. These types of attacks have increased, in general, as more businesses implement
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remote working environments. Our business is also subject to break-ins, sabotage, and intentional acts of vandalism by third parties as well as intentional and unintentional acts by employees or other insiders with access privileges. Customers’ network and storage applications may be subject to similar disruptions. It is often difficult to anticipate or immediately detect such incidents and the damage caused by such incidents. Data breaches and any unauthorized access or disclosure of information, employee information, or intellectual property could compromise our intellectual property, trade secrets, and other sensitive business information, any of which could result in legal action against us, exposure of our intellectual property to competitors, damages, fines, and other adverse effects. A data security breach could also lead to public exposure of personal information of employees, customers, and others. Any such theft, loss, or misuse of personal data collected, used, stored, or transferred by us to run our business could result in significantly increased security costs or costs related to defending legal claims.

Cyber-attacks, such as computer viruses, or other forms of cyber terrorism, may disrupt access to our network or storage applications. Such disruptions could result in delays or cancellations of customer orders or delays or interruptions in the production or shipment of products. Data security breaches involving data center customers could affect their financial condition and ability to continue to purchase our products. In addition, cyber-attacks may cause us to incur significant remediation costs, result in product development delays, disrupt key business operations, and divert attention of management and key information technology resources. These incidents could also subject us to liability, expose us to significant expense, and cause significant harm to our reputation and our business.

In addition, our technology infrastructure and systems are vulnerable to damage or interruption from natural disasters, power loss, and telecommunications failures. Our products contain sophisticated hardware and operating system software and applications that may contain security problems, security vulnerabilities, or defects in design or manufacture including “bugs” and other problems that could interfere with the intended operation of our products. To the extent that any disruption or security breach results in a loss or damage to our technology infrastructure, systems, or data or inappropriate disclosure of confidential information or sensitive or personal information, it could harm relationships with customers and other third parties and damage our brand and reputation and our business. In addition, we may be required to incur significant costs to protect against damage caused by these disruptions or security breaches in the future.

We may be subject to theft, loss, or misuse of personal data about employees, customers, or other third parties, which could increase expenses, damage our reputation, or result in legal or regulatory proceedings.

The theft, loss, or misuse of personal data collected, used, stored, or transferred by us to run our business could result in significantly increased security costs or costs related to defending legal claims. Global privacy legislation, enforcement, and policy activity in this area are rapidly expanding and creating a complex compliance regulatory environment. Costs to comply with and implement these privacy-related and data protection measures could be significant. In addition, inadvertent failure to comply with federal, state, or international privacy related or data protection laws and regulations could result in proceedings against us by governmental entities or others or cause us to incur penalties or other significant legal liability or change business practices.

Risks Related to Governmental Regulation

We could be subject to legal and regulatory consequences if we fail to comply with applicable export control laws and regulations.

Exports of certain products are subject to export controls imposed by the U.S. government and administered by the U.S. Departments of State and Commerce. In certain instances, these regulations may require pre-shipment authorization from the administering department. For products subject to the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”) administered by the Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security, the requirement for a license is dependent on the type and end use of the product, the final destination, the identity of the end user, and whether a license exception might apply. Virtually all exports of products subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”) administered by the Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, require a license.

Obtaining necessary export licenses can be difficult and time-consuming. Failure to obtain necessary export licenses could significantly reduce revenue and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. We could be subject to investigation and potential regulatory consequences, including, but not limited to, a no-action letter, monetary penalties, debarment from government contracting, or denial of export privileges and criminal sanctions, any of which would adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Compliance with U.S. government regulations may also subject us to significant fees and expenses, including legal expenses, and require us to expend
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significant time and resources. Finally, the absence of comparable restrictions on competitors in other countries may adversely affect our competitive position.

We are subject to extensive government regulation, and failure to comply with applicable regulations could subject us to penalties that may restrict the ability to conduct business.

As a contractor and/or subcontractor to the U.S. government, we are subject to and must comply with various government regulations that impact revenue, operating costs, profit margins, and the internal organization and operation of our business. The most significant regulations and regulatory authorities affecting the portion of our business related to U.S. government contracts include the following:

the Federal Acquisition Regulations, Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement, and other supplemental agency regulations which comprehensively regulate the formation and administration of, and performance under, U.S. government contracts;
the Truth in Negotiations Act which requires certification and disclosure of all factual cost and pricing data in connection with contract negotiations;
the False Claims Act and the False Statements Act which impose penalties for payments made on the basis of false facts provided to the government and on the basis of false statements made to the government, respectively; and
the FCPA which prohibits U.S. companies from providing anything of value to a foreign official to help obtain, retain, or direct business, or obtain any unfair advantage.

Failure to comply with applicable regulations, rules and approvals, or misconduct by any employee, could result in the imposition of fines and penalties, the loss of government contracts, or suspension or debarment from contracting with the U.S. government generally, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. We are also subject to certain regulations of comparable government agencies in other countries, and failure to comply with these non-U.S. regulations could also harm our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Our business related to government contracts subjects us to additional risks.

We believe that for the foreseeable future the growth of our Inertial Navigation product line will depend, to a certain degree, on the ability to win government contracts and subcontracts, in particular from the Department of Defense. Many government customers are subject to budgetary constraints and our continued performance under these contracts or subcontracts, or award of additional contracts or subcontracts from these agencies, could be jeopardized by spending reductions, including constraints on government spending imposed by the Budget Control Act of 2011 and its subsequent amendments, budget cutbacks at these agencies, or government shutdowns. The funding of U.S. government programs is uncertain and dependent on continued congressional appropriations and administrative allotment of funds based on an annual budgeting process. We cannot be certain that current levels of congressional funding for our products and services will continue and that our business related to these products will not decline or increase at currently anticipated levels, or that we will not be subject to delays in the negotiation of contracts or increased costs due to changes in the funding of U.S. government programs or government shutdowns. A significant decline in government expenditures generally, or with respect to programs for which we provide products, could adversely affect our business and prospects. In addition, U.S. government contracts generally permit the government to terminate the contract without prior notice, at the government’s convenience, or for default based on performance. Government customers can also decline to exercise previously disclosed contract options. A termination arising out of our default could expose us to liability and adversely affect our ability to obtain future contracts and orders. Furthermore, on contracts for which we are a subcontractor and not the prime contractor, the U.S. government could terminate the prime contract for convenience or otherwise, irrespective of our performance as a subcontractor. Also, sales to the U.S. government and its contractors as well as foreign military and government customers, either directly or as a subcontractor to other contractors, often use a competitive bidding process and have unique purchasing and delivery requirements, which often makes the timing of sales to these customers unpredictable.

In addition, our business could be adversely affected by a negative audit or investigation by the U.S. government. U.S. government agencies, primarily the Defense Contract Audit Agency and the Defense Contract Management Agency, routinely audit and investigate government contractors. These agencies review a contractor’s performance under its contracts, cost structure, and compliance with applicable laws, regulations, and standards. These agencies also may review the adequacy of, and a contractor’s compliance with, its internal control systems and policies, including the contractor’s purchasing, quality, accounting, property, estimating, compensation, and management information systems. Any costs found to be improperly allocated to a specific cost reimbursement contract will not be reimbursed, while such costs already reimbursed must be refunded. If an audit or investigation of our business were to uncover improper or illegal activities, then we could be subject to
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civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, suspension of payments, fines, and suspension or debarment from doing business with the U.S. government. We could experience serious harm to our reputation if allegations of impropriety or illegal acts were made against us, even if the allegations were inaccurate. In addition, responding to governmental audits or investigations may involve significant expense and divert management attention. Moreover, if any administrative processes and business systems are found not to comply with the applicable requirements, we may be subject to increased government scrutiny or required to obtain additional governmental approvals that could delay or otherwise adversely affect the ability to compete for or perform contracts. If any of the foregoing were to occur, our business, financial condition, operating results, and cash flows may be adversely affected.

The costs of compliance with state, federal, and international legal and regulatory requirements, such as environmental, labor, trade, and tax regulations, and customers’ standards of corporate citizenship could increase operating costs.

We are subject to environmental and health and safety laws and regulations and must obtain certain permits and licenses relating to the use of hazardous materials in production activities. If control systems are unsuccessful in preventing a release of these materials into the environment or other adverse environmental conditions or human exposure occurs, we could experience interruptions in operations and incur substantial remediation and other costs or liabilities. We are also subject to a number of federal and state laws and regulations related to safety, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”) and comparable state statutes, the purpose of which are to protect the health and safety of workers. Failure to comply with OSHA requirements and other related state regulations, including general industry standards, record keeping requirements, and monitoring and control of occupational exposure to regulated substances, could have a material adverse effect on results of operations and financial condition if we are subjected to significant penalties, fines, or compliance costs. In addition, certain foreign laws and regulations place restrictions on the concentration of certain hazardous materials, including, but not limited to, lead, mercury, and cadmium, in our products. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations could subject us to future liabilities or result in the limitation or suspension of the sale or production of our products. These regulations include the EU’s Restrictions on Hazardous Substances and Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Failure to comply with environmental and health and safety laws and regulations may limit the ability to export products to the EU and could adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. In addition, we purchase certain chemicals from Europe and Asia that are unique, nearing the end of life, and could be subject to future changes to environmental regulations in the country of origin and/or the U.S. In the event new restrictions are placed on any such chemicals, they may be difficult to replace, and may require us to re-design or re-validate existing products that use such chemicals in their production.

In connection with compliance with such environmental laws and regulations, as well as compliance with industry environmental initiatives, the standards of business conduct required by some customers, and commitment to sound corporate citizenship in all aspects of our business, we could incur substantial compliance and operating costs and be subject to disruptions to operations. In addition, in recent years, there has been increased media scrutiny and associated reports focusing on a potential link between working in semiconductor manufacturing clean room environments and certain illnesses, primarily different types of cancers. Regulatory agencies and industry associations have begun to study the issue to see if any actual correlation exists. Because we utilize clean rooms, we may become subject to liability claims. These reports may also affect the ability to recruit and retain employees. If we were found to be in violation of environmental and safety regulations laws or noncompliance with industry initiatives or standards of conduct, we could be subject to government fines or liabilities owed to customers, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

In addition, climate change is a significant topic of discussion and potential regulatory activity and has generated and may continue to generate federal or other regulatory responses in the near future. If we or component suppliers fail to timely comply with applicable legislation, customers may refuse to purchase products or we may face increased operating costs as a result of taxes, fines, or penalties, which may have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

The Department of Homeland Security has commenced a program to evaluate the security of certain chemicals which may be of interest to terrorists, including chemicals utilized by us. This evaluation may lead to regulations or restrictions affecting the ability to utilize these chemicals or the costs of doing so.

We are subject to anti-corruption laws in the jurisdictions in which we operate, including the FCPA. Failure to comply with these laws could result in penalties which could harm our reputation and have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We are subject to the FCPA, which generally prohibits companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business and/or other benefits, along with various other anti-corruption
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laws. Although we have implemented policies and procedures designed to ensure that we, our employees, and other intermediaries comply with the FCPA and other anti-corruption laws to which we are subject, we cannot be certain that such policies or procedures will work effectively all of the time or protect us against liability under the FCPA or other laws for actions taken by employees and other intermediaries with respect to our business or any businesses that we may acquire.

We export products for sale internationally. This puts us in frequent contact with persons who may be considered “foreign officials” under the FCPA, resulting in an elevated risk of potential FCPA violations. If we are not in compliance with the FCPA and other laws governing the conduct of business with government entities (including local laws), we may be subject to criminal and civil penalties and other remedial measures, which could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. Any investigation of any potential violations of the FCPA or other anti-corruption laws by U.S. or foreign authorities could harm our reputation and have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

We have identified a material weakness in our system of internal controls over financial reporting and have concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of September 30, 2023. If we fail to properly remediate the material weakness or any future deficiencies or material weaknesses or to maintain proper and effective internal controls, material misstatements in our financial statements could occur and impair our ability to produce accurate and timely financial statements and could adversely affect investor confidence in our financial reports, which could negatively affect our business.

We are subject to the ongoing internal control provisions of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. These provisions provide for the identification of material weaknesses or other lesser deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting, which is a process to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting for external purposes in accordance with U.S. GAAP.

In connection with the preparation of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, we identified a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

As more fully described in Item 9A. “Controls and Procedures, we determined that communications with regard to internal control objectives were not effective to require employees to report the existence of new or novel arrangements for technical accounting review, which resulted in our failure to design and implement effective controls over such transactions.

The control deficiency resulted in a material error associated with identification of the existence of certain insurance premium and supplier financing agreements, whereby (i) certain items on our consolidated balance sheet were underreported in “Other current assets” with a consistent dollar amount underreported for “Financing payable” within our consolidated balance sheet and (ii) certain items on our consolidated statements of cash flows were underreported in payments to financing payables within “Cash flows from financing activities” and similar such underreporting of such items in other assets in “Cash flows from operating activities”. This error has been corrected in the consolidated financial statements as of and for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, and as a result, this material weakness did not result in a material misstatement to the annual or interim consolidated financial statements previously filed or included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Although we have identified and are implementing actions intended to improve the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures as more fully described in Item 9A. “Controls and Procedures”, and will continue to do so until such remediation is complete, there is no assurance that the actions we take will remediate the material weakness.

We can give no assurance that additional material weaknesses will not arise in the future. Any failure to remediate the material weakness, or the development of new material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, could result in material misstatements in our financial statements. We cannot be certain that the improvement measures taken will ensure adequate controls over financial processes and reporting in the future. Any failure to implement required, new, or improved controls, or difficulties encountered in their implementation, could harm operating results or cause us to fail to meet reporting obligations. This could cause us to fail to meet our reporting and financial obligations, which in turn could have a negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows, restrict our ability to access the capital markets, require significant resources to correct the material weaknesses or deficiencies, subject us to fines, penalties or judgments, or harm our reputation.

Inadequate internal controls could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have an adverse effect on the trading price of our equity securities. Further, the impact of these events could also make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified persons to serve on the Board of Directors or as executive officers, which could harm our business.

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Our internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements because of its inherent limitations, including the possibility of human error, failure or interruption of information technology systems, the circumvention or overriding of controls, or fraud. Even effective internal controls can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements. If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, including any failure to implement required new or improved controls, or if we experience difficulties in their implementation, our business and operating results could be harmed and the Company could fail to meet its financial reporting obligations.

We could be required to record an impairment charge as a result of changes to assumptions used in our impairment testing.

We have substantial long-lived assets recorded on the balance sheet. If we make changes in our business strategy or if market or other conditions adversely affect business operations, we may be forced to record an impairment charge related to these assets, which would adversely impact results of operations. Impairment assessment inherently involves judgment as to assumptions about expected future cash flows and the impact of market conditions on those assumptions. Future events and changes in market conditions, underlying business operations, competition, or technologies may impact assumptions as to prices, costs, holding periods, or other factors that may result in changes in estimates of future cash flows. Although we believe the assumptions we used in testing for impairment are reasonable, we will continue to evaluate the recoverability of the carrying amount of definite-lived intangible assets and property, plant and equipment on an ongoing basis, and test indefinite-lived intangible assets annually or more frequently as indicated, and significant changes in any one assumption could produce a significantly different result. In such a circumstance, we may incur substantial impairment charges, which would adversely affect financial results. In any period where our stock price, as determined by market capitalization, is less than book value, this too could indicate a potential impairment and we may be required to record an impairment charge in that period.

Compliance with regulations related to conflict minerals and other regulations with respect to our supply chains could increase costs and affect the manufacturing and sale of our products.

Public companies are required to disclose the use of tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold (collectively, “conflict minerals”) mined from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries (the “covered countries”) if a conflict mineral(s) is necessary to the functionality of a product manufactured, or contracted to be manufactured, by us. We may determine, as part of compliance efforts, that certain products or components we obtain from suppliers contain conflict minerals. If we are unable to conclude that all products are free from conflict minerals originating from covered countries, this could have a negative impact on our business, reputation, and/or results of operations. We may also encounter challenges to satisfy customers who require that products be certified as conflict free, which could place us at a competitive disadvantage. Compliance with these rules could also affect the sourcing and availability of some of the minerals used in the manufacture of products or components we obtain from suppliers, including the ability to obtain products or components in sufficient quantities and/or at competitive prices. Certain customers are requiring additional information from us regarding the origin of raw materials and complying with these customer requirements may cause us to incur additional costs. Our supply chain is complex and we may be unable to verify the origins for all metals used in products.

In addition, the U.S. federal government has issued policies for federal procurement focused on eradicating the practice of forced labor and human trafficking, and the United Kingdom and the State of California have issued laws that require us to disclose our policy and practices for identifying and eliminating forced labor and human trafficking in our supply chain. Several customers, as well as the Electronic Industry Citizenship Coalition, have also issued expectations to eliminate these practices that may impact us. While we have a policy and management systems to identify and avoid these practices in our supply chain, we cannot guarantee that suppliers will always be in conformance to these laws and expectations. We may face enforcement liability and reputational challenges if we are unable to sufficiently meet these expectations. Moreover, we are likely to encounter challenges with customers if we cannot satisfy their forced and trafficked labor polices and they may choose a competitor’s product.

We may undergo an “ownership change” within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code, which could affect our ability to offset U.S. federal income tax against our net operating losses and certain of our tax credit carryovers.

In September 2023, our Board of Directors adopted the Section 382 Tax Benefits Preservation Plan to diminish the risk that we could experience an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 (“Section 382”) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), which could substantially limit or permanently eliminate our ability to utilize our net operating loss carryovers (collectively, the “NOLs”) to reduce potential future income tax obligations. Under the Code and the regulations promulgated thereunder by the U.S. Treasury Department, these NOLs may be “carried forward” in certain circumstances to offset any current and future taxable income and thus reduce federal income tax liability, subject to certain requirements and restrictions. While the amount and timing of our future taxable income cannot be predicted with any certainty and, accordingly,
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we cannot predict the amount of these NOLs that will ultimately be used to reduce its income tax liability, to the extent that the NOLs do not otherwise become limited, these NOLs could be a potentially valuable asset to us. As of September 30, 2023, we had federal net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $391.5 million.

In general, under Section 382, an “ownership change” occurs if a shareholder or a group of shareholders who are deemed to own at least 5% of a company’s stock individually or collectively increase their ownership by more than 50 percentage points over their lowest ownership percentage within a rolling three-year period. If an ownership change occurs, Section 382 would impose an annual limit on the amount of the Company’s NOLs that can be used to offset the Company’s federal taxable income equal to the product of the total value of the Company’s outstanding equity immediately prior to the ownership change (reduced by certain items specified in Section 382) and the federal long-term tax-exempt interest rate in effect for the month of the ownership change. A number of complex rules apply to calculating this annual limit and there are several special rules that, depending on the rule involved, may apply to reduce or increase such limit. If we were to undergo one or more “ownership changes” within the meaning of Section 382 of the Code, our NOLs and certain of our tax credits existing as of the date of each ownership change may be unavailable, in whole or in part, to offset U.S. federal income tax resulting from our operations or any gains from the disposition of any of our assets and/or business, which could result in increased U.S. federal income tax liability. While we periodically monitor our NOLs and currently believe that an ownership change that would impair the value of its NOLs has not occurred, the complexity of Section 382’s provisions and the limited knowledge any public company has about the ownership of its publicly traded stock make it difficult to determine whether an ownership change has in fact occurred. Furthermore, there is no assurance that we will be able to fully utilize our NOLs and we may be required to record an additional valuation allowance related to the amount of the NOLs that may not be realized.

The Section 382 Tax Benefits Preservation Plan is intended to act as a deterrent to any person or group acquiring beneficial ownership of 4.99% or more of our outstanding common stock without the approval of the Board of Directors. A person who acquires, without the approval of the Board of Directors, beneficial ownership (other than as a result of repurchases of stock by the Company, dividends or distributions by the Company or certain inadvertent actions by shareholders) of 4.99% or more of the outstanding common stock (including any ownership interest held by that person’s Affiliates and Associates as defined under the Section 382 Tax Benefits Preservation Plan) could be subject to significant dilution. Although the Section 382 Tax Benefits Preservation Plan is intended to reduce the likelihood of an “ownership change” that could adversely affect us, there is no assurance that the restrictions on transferability in the rights plan will prevent all transfers that could result in such an “ownership change”. The Section 382 Tax Benefits Preservation Plan could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire, or could discourage a third party from acquiring, our Company or a large block of our common stock. A third party that acquires 4.99% or more of our common stock could suffer substantial dilution of its ownership interest under the terms of the Section 382 Tax Benefits Preservation Plan through the issuance of common stock or common stock equivalents to all shareholders other than the acquiring person. The foregoing provisions may adversely affect the marketability of our common stock by discouraging potential investors from acquiring our stock. In addition, these provisions could delay or frustrate the removal of incumbent directors and could make more difficult a merger, tender offer or proxy contest involving us, or impede an attempt to acquire a significant or controlling interest in us, even if such events might be beneficial to us and our shareholders.

Certain provisions of New Jersey law and our governing documents may make a takeover of our Company difficult even if such takeover could be beneficial to shareholders.

Certain provisions of our organizational documents and New Jersey law could discourage potential acquisition proposals, delay, or prevent a change in control of the Company, or limit the price that investors may be willing to pay in the future for shares of common stock. For example, our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws:

provide that directors may be removed at any time, but only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors cast at a meeting of shareholders called for that purpose;
provide that a super majority vote of shareholders is required to amend some portions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, including requiring approval by the holders of 80% or more of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote generally in the election of directors for certain business combinations unless these transactions meet certain fair price criteria and procedural requirements or are approved by two-thirds of continuing directors;
authorize the issuance of preferred stock, without any requirement of vote or class vote of shareholders, commonly referred to as “blank check” preferred stock, which shares of preferred stock may have rights senior to those of common stock;
limit the persons who can call special shareholder meetings; shareholders do not have authority to call a special meeting of shareholders;
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establish advance notice requirements that must be complied with by shareholders to nominate persons for election to the Board of Directors or to propose matters that can be acted on by shareholders at shareholder meetings;
do not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors; and
provide for the filling of vacancies on the Board of Directors by action of 66 2/3% of the directors and not by the shareholders.

These and other provisions in our organizational documents could allow the Board of Directors to affect the rights of shareholders in a number of ways, including making it difficult for shareholders to replace members of the Board of Directors. Because the Board of Directors is responsible for approving the appointment of members of the management team, these provisions could in turn affect any attempt to replace the current management team. These provisions could also limit the price that investors would be willing to pay in the future for shares of common stock. We may in the future adopt other measures that may have the effect of delaying or discouraging an unsolicited takeover, even if the takeover were at a premium price or favored by a majority of unaffiliated shareholders. Certain of these measures may be adopted without any further vote or action by shareholders and this could depress the price of our common stock.

General Risk Factors

If we fail to satisfy all applicable Nasdaq continued listing requirements, including the $1.00 minimum closing bid price requirement, our common stock may be delisted from Nasdaq, which could have an adverse impact on the liquidity and market price of our common stock.

Our common stock is currently listed on Nasdaq, which has qualitative and quantitative continued listing requirements, including corporate governance requirements, public float requirements, and a $1.00 minimum closing bid price requirement. Our common stock price is currently and may in the future be below the minimum bid price for continued listing on Nasdaq. On June 23, 2023, we received a letter (the “Notification Letter”) from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC stating that we were not in compliance with the minimum bid price requirements set forth in Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1) because our common stock failed to maintain a minimum closing bid price of $1.00 per share for 30 consecutive business days, and that to regain compliance, the closing bid price of our common stock must be at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days at any time prior to December 20, 2023. On September 18, 2023, we applied to transfer our securities to The Nasdaq Capital Market, as allowed under Nasdaq rules, and on December 21, 2023, Nasdaq granted such request and a corresponding extension of the date by which we must regain compliance such that in order to regain compliance, the closing bid price of our common stock must be at least $1.00 per share for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days at any time prior to June 17, 2024. While the Notification Letter has no immediate effect on the listing or trading of our common stock on Nasdaq, we intend to actively monitor the bid price for our common stock between now and June 17, 2024 and will consider available options to resolve the deficiency and regain compliance with the minimum bid price requirement, such as a reverse stock split. If our common stock is delisted, it would likely have an adverse effect on the liquidity of our common stock, decrease the market price of our common stock, result in the potential loss of confidence by investors, suppliers, customers, and employees, and fewer business development opportunities, and adversely affect our ability to obtain financing for our continuing operations.

Our business and results of operations may continue to be negatively impacted by general economic and financial market conditions and market conditions in the industries in which we operate, and such conditions may increase the other risks that affect our business.

In recent years, the world’s financial markets have experienced significant turmoil, resulting in reductions in available credit, increased costs of credit, extreme volatility in security prices, potential changes to existing credit terms, and rating downgrades of investments. These conditions have and may continue to materially and adversely affect the market conditions in the industries in which we operate and cause many customers to reduce their spending plans, leading them to draw down their existing inventory, and reduce orders for our products, which, in turn, may adversely impact our revenues. We cannot predict the timing, strength, or duration of any economic slowdown or subsequent economic recovery, worldwide or within our industries. It is possible that adverse macroeconomic developments, including inflation, slowing growth or recession, and rising interest rates, could result in further setbacks, and that these customers, or others, could as a result, significantly reduce their capital expenditures, draw down their inventories, reduce production levels of existing products, defer introduction of new products, or place orders and accept delivery for products for which they do not pay us due to their economic difficulties or other reasons. If any of these events occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may be adversely affected. Management continues to evaluate the impact of macroeconomic events, including inflation, on our business and our future plans and intends to take appropriate measures to help alleviate their impact, but there can be no assurance that these efforts will be successful. A weak or declining economy could also strain our suppliers, possibly resulting in supply
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disruption, or cause our customers to delay making payments for our products. A severe or prolonged economic downturn, such as the global financial crisis, could also reduce our ability to raise additional capital when needed on acceptable terms, if at all.

Further, the funding of the defense programs that incorporate our products and services is subject to the overall U.S. government budget and appropriation decisions and processes, which are driven by numerous factors beyond our control, including geo-political, macroeconomic, public health and political conditions. We are unable to predict the likely duration and severity of adverse economic conditions in the United States and other countries, but the longer the duration or the greater the severity, the greater the risks we face in operating our business. The near-term potential for recessionary economic conditions and possible stagflation (persistent high inflation and stagnant economic demand) presents increased risks to our business.

Natural disasters or other catastrophic events could have an adverse effect on our business.

Natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and floods, could adversely affect operations and financial performance. Such events could result in physical damage to one or more facilities, the temporary closure of one or more facilities or those of our suppliers, a temporary lack of an adequate work force in a market, a temporary or long-term disruption in the supply of products from some local and overseas suppliers, a temporary disruption in the transportation of goods from overseas, and delays in the delivery of goods. Public health issues, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, whether occurring in the U.S. or abroad, could disrupt our operations, disrupt the operations of suppliers or customers, or have an adverse impact on customer demand. As a result of any of these events, we may be required to suspend operations in some or all locations, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows. These events could also reduce demand for our products or make it difficult or impossible to receive products from suppliers. Although we maintain business interruption insurance and other insurance intended to cover some of these risks, such insurance may be inadequate, whether because of coverage amount, policy limitations, the financial viability of the insurance companies issuing such policies, or other reasons.

We may not pay dividends on our common stock and, consequently, the only opportunity to achieve a return on an investment in our common stock may be an increase in the price of our common stock.

We may not pay dividends in the future. The terms of our loan and security agreement with our financial institution restrict our ability to pay dividends. Consequently, the only opportunity to achieve a return on an investment in our common stock may be through an increase in the market price of our common stock over the price paid, of which there is no guarantee.

***

The risks above are not the only risks we face. If any of the events described in our risk factors actually occur, or if additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial materialize, then our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows could be materially affected.

ITEM 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

ITEM 2. Properties.

We lease building space consisting of corporate, manufacturing, research and development, and other facilities. We currently lease facilities in Alhambra and Concord, California, Budd Lake, New Jersey, Middletown, Rhode Island, and Tinley Park, Illinois.

The facility in Tinley Park, Illinois, with approximately 100,415 square feet, is leased through 2034 and is utilized for manufacturing and research and development.

Approximately 50,000 square feet of the facility in Alhambra, California is leased through 2031 and approximately 18,000 square feet of this facility is leased through September 2026, in each case with an option to extend. This facility is utilized for corporate headquarters, administrative functions, manufacturing, and research and development.

The facility in Concord, California, with approximately 110,000 square feet, is leased through 2035, with an option to extend, and is utilized for manufacturing and research and development.

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The facility in Budd Lake, New Jersey, with approximately 112,000 square feet, is leased through May 2025 and is utilized for manufacturing and research and development.

The facility in Middletown, Rhode Island, with approximately 5,000 square feet, is leased through September 2024, with an option to extend through September 2026, and is utilized for sales, administrative and research and development.

ITEM 3. Legal Proceedings.

See Note 13 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for disclosures related to legal proceedings, which disclosures are incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.
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PART II.

ITEM 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Market Information

Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market and is quoted under the symbol “EMKR”.

Holders

As of December 9, 2023, we had 61 shareholders of record. Many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of shareholders, and we are unable to estimate the number of these shareholders.

Dividends

We expect to retain all earnings to finance the expansion and development of our business and we do not currently intend to pay any cash dividends on capital stock in the foreseeable future. In addition, we are prohibited from paying cash dividends under the terms of the Credit Agreement without obtaining Wingspire’s consent.

ITEM 6. [Reserved]

ITEM 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion of financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto included in Financial Statements and Supplementary Data under Part II, Item 8 within this Annual Report. The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect plans, estimates, and beliefs. Actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements. See Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

Business Overview

We are a leading provider of sensors and navigation systems for the aerospace and defense market. Over the last five years, we have expanded our scale and portfolio of inertial sensor products through the acquisitions of Systron Donner Inertial, Inc. (“SDI”) in June 2019, the Space and Navigation business of L3Harris Technologies, Inc. (“S&N”) in April 2022, and the FOG and Inertial Navigation Systems business of KVH Industries, Inc. (“EMCORE Chicago”) in August 2022. Our multi-year transition from a broadband company to an inertial navigation company has now been completed following the sale of our cable TV, wireless, sensing and defense optoelectronics business lines and the shutdown of our chips business line and indium phosphide wafer fabrication operations.

We have fully vertically-integrated manufacturing capability at our headquarters in Alhambra, CA, and at our facilities in Budd Lake, NJ, Concord, CA, and Tinley Park, IL. These facilities support our manufacturing strategy for Fiber Optic Gyroscope (“FOG”), Ring Laser Gyro (“RLG”), Photonic Integrated Chip (“PIC”), and Quartz Micro Electro-Mechanical System (“QMEMS”) products for inertial navigation. Our manufacturing facilities maintain ISO 9001 quality management certification, and we are AS9100 aerospace quality certified at our facilities in Alhambra, CA, Concord, CA, and Budd Lake, NJ. Our best-in-class components and systems support a broad array of inertial navigation applications.

Our operations include wafer fabrication (lithium niobate and quartz), device design and production, fiber optic module and subsystem design and manufacture, and PIC-based and QMEMS-based component design and manufacture. Many of our manufacturing operations are computer-monitored or controlled to enhance production output and statistical control. Our manufacturing processes involve extensive quality assurance systems and performance testing.

We have one reporting segment, Inertial Navigation, whose product technology categories include: (a) FOG, (b) QMEMS, (c) RLG, in each case which serve the aerospace and defense market.

Recent Developments

Divestiture to Photonics Foundries

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On October 11, 2023, we entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”), by and among us, Photonics Foundries, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“PF”), and Ortel LLC a Delaware limited liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of PF (the “Buyer”), pursuant to which (i) we agreed to transfer to the Buyer, and Buyer agreed to assume, substantially all of the assets and liabilities primarily related to our cable TV, wireless, sensing and defense optoelectronics business lines (the “Businesses”), including with respect to employees, contracts, intellectual property and inventory, and (ii) Buyer agreed to provide a limited license back to us of the patents being sold to the Buyer (the “Divestiture Transaction”). The Divestiture Transaction excludes our chip business, indium phosphide wafer fabrication facilities and all assets not primarily related to the Businesses. The signing and closing of the Divestiture Transaction occurred simultaneously, except with respect to our assets located in China. On November 30, 2023, we transferred to the Buyer, and the Buyer assumed, substantially all of the assets and liabilities of each of our subsidiaries in China.

In connection with the Divestiture Transaction, the parties entered into a transition services agreement pursuant to which we will provide certain migration and transition services to facilitate an orderly transaction of the operation of the Businesses to the Buyer in the 12-month period following consummation of the Divestiture Transaction, and we and the Buyer entered into a sublease pursuant to which we will sublease to the Buyer one of our buildings (occupying approximately 12,500 square feet) at our Alhambra, California facility for the 12-month period immediately following the closing of the Divestiture Transaction without payment of rent. With respect to the Buyer’s assumption of that certain Manufacturing Supply Agreement, dated August 9, 2021 (as amended, the “Fastrain Manufacturing Agreement”), by and among the Company, Shenzhen Fastrain Technology Co., Ltd., Hong Kong Fastrain Company Limited, and Fastrain Technology Malaysia SDN. BHD (collectively, “Fastrain”), we (i) made a payment to Fastrain in the amount of approximately $0.4 million immediately prior to the closing of the Divestiture Transaction and (ii) provided a guaranty of PF’s and the Buyer’s obligations with respect to payment of certain long-term liabilities that were originally agreed to and set forth in the Fastrain Manufacturing Agreement and assigned to PF and the Buyer in the Divestiture Transaction, in an aggregate amount expected to equal up to approximately $5.5 million, approximately $4.2 million of which will not become payable, if at all, until January 2026, provided that if such guaranty is exercised by Fastrain, we will have the right to require the Buyer to reassign to us all intellectual property assigned to the Buyer in the Divestiture Transaction and we will have the right to recover damages from PF and the Buyer.

August 2023 Equity Offering

On August 23, 2023, we closed our offering of 22,600,000 shares of our common stock at a price of $0.50 per share, and, to certain investors, pre-funded warrants (each, a “Pre-Funded Warrant”) to purchase 11,900,000 shares of our common stock at a price of $0.49999999 for each Pre-Funded Warrant (which represents the per share public offering price for our common stock in such offering less the $0.00000001 per share exercise price for each such Pre-Funded Warrant), resulting in net proceeds to us from the offering, after deducting the placement agent commissions and other offering expenses, of approximately $15.6 million. The shares were sold by us pursuant to an Underwriting Agreement, dated as of August 17, 2023, between us and the Craig-Hallum Capital Group LLC as the sole managing underwriter.

Restructuring

In April 2023, we initiated a restructuring program that includes the strategic shutdown of our Broadband business segment (including our cable TV, wireless, sensing and chips product lines) and the discontinuance of our defense optoelectronics product line. Our Board of Directors performed a thorough review of a number of factors including the competitive landscape, declining revenue and gross profit of these discontinued businesses, the current and expected profitability of these discontinued businesses, our cost structure, and our strategic focus on our Inertial Navigation business segment, and concluded that these discontinued businesses are non-strategic, currently unsustainable, and cannot be restructured in a way that will allow us to achieve profitable growth and cash preservation. During the quarter ended September 30, 2023, the Broadband business segment and defense optoelectronics product line were considered as held for sale based upon (i) the existence of an executed non-binding letter of intent with respect to the Divestiture Transaction as described above as of such date and (ii) in consideration of ongoing negotiations for the sale of the chips business. Given the prospective sale of the Broadband business segment and defense optoelectronics product line we have identified these asset groups as discontinued operations during the quarter ended September 30, 2023. We discontinued operations of our chips business and indium phosphide wafer fabrication facility during the quarter ended September 30, 2023. As a result of this restructuring and the Divestiture Transaction, we (i) have eliminated approximately 70 positions in the U.S. (primarily in Alhambra, California) and approximately 30 positions in China, collectively representing approximately 22% of our total workforce, (ii) expect to consolidate facility space by reducing the space used at our Alhambra campus from five to two buildings (including closure of our indium phosphide wafer fabrication facility in Alhambra) and relocating personnel in Concord, California to the operations area from the adjacent office building, and (iii) have transferred our manufacturing support and engineering center in China pursuant to the Divestiture Transaction, collectively representing an approximately 25% reduction in the aggregate square footage occupied by our facilities. One-time employee severance and termination costs related to the restructuring of approximately $2.3 million were incurred in, and are presented in the loss from discontinued operations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023. We
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anticipate that cash and non-cash charges will be incurred and recorded in future reporting periods and we may incur additional expenses in connection with this restructuring that are not currently contemplated. The charges that we expect to incur in connection with the restructuring are estimates and subject to a number of assumptions, and actual results may differ materially.

February 2023 Equity Offering

On February 17, 2023, we closed our offering of 15,454,546 shares of our common stock at a price of $1.10 per share, resulting in net proceeds to us from the offering, after deducting the placement agent commissions and other offering expenses, of $15.4 million. The shares were sold by us pursuant to a Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of February 17, 2023, between the Company and each purchaser named in the signature pages thereto and a Placement Agency Agreement, dated as of February 15, 2023, by and between the Company and A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners.

Acquisition of KVH Industries, Inc. FOG and Inertial Navigation Systems Business

On August 9, 2022, we completed the acquisition of the KVH Industries, Inc. (“KVH”) FOG and Inertial Navigation Systems business (“EMCORE Chicago”) pursuant to that certain Asset Purchase Agreement entered into as of August 9, 2022 by and among the Company, Delta Acquisition Sub, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, and KVH, pursuant to which we acquired substantially all of KVH’s assets and liabilities primarily related to the segment, including property interests in the Tinley Park facility located at 8412 West 185th St., Tinley Park, Illinois (the “Tinley Park Facility”), for aggregate consideration of approximately $55.0 million, exclusive of transaction costs and expenses and subject to certain post-closing working capital adjustments.

Tinley Park Sale and Leaseback Transaction

On December 13, 2022, EMCORE Chicago consummated the sale of its real property interest in the Tinley Park Facility to 8400 W 185TH STREET INVESTORS, LLC (the “Tinley Park Buyer”), resulting in net proceeds of approximately $10.3 million. The sale was made pursuant to the terms of that certain Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “Tinley Park Purchase Agreement”) dated as of November 1, 2022, by and between EMCORE Chicago and HSRE Fund VII Holding Company, LLC, an affiliate of the Tinley Park Buyer. In connection with the sale of the real property interests in the Tinley Park Facility, after considering multiple transaction structures, EMCORE Chicago entered into a long-term Single-Tenant Triple Net Lease (the “Lease Agreement”) with Buyer pursuant to which EMCORE Chicago leased back the Tinley Park Facility for a twelve (12) year term commencing on December 13, 2022, unless earlier terminated or extended in accordance with the terms of the Lease Agreement.

Wingspire Credit Agreement

On August 9, 2022, the Company and EMCORE Space & Navigation Corporation, our wholly-owned subsidiary (“S&N”), entered into that certain Credit Agreement, dated as of August 9, 2022, among the Company, S&N, the lenders party thereto and Wingspire Capital LLC, as administrative agent for the lenders (“Wingspire”), as amended pursuant to that First Amendment to Credit Agreement, dated as of October 25, 2022, among the Company, S&N, EMCORE Chicago Inertial Corporation, our wholly-owned subsidiary (together with the Company and S&N, the “Borrowers”), the lenders party thereto and Wingspire, to add EMCORE Chicago as a Borrower and include certain of its assets in the borrowing base (as amended, the “Credit Agreement”). The Credit Agreement provides for two credit facilities: (a) an asset-based revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $40.0 million, subject to a borrowing base consisting of eligible accounts receivable and eligible inventory (subject to certain reserves), and (b) a term loan facility in an aggregate principal amount of $5,965,000. The proceeds of the loans made under the Credit Agreement may be used for general corporate purposes. Borrowings under the Credit Agreement will mature on August 8, 2025, and will bear interest, at a rate per annum equal to term SOFR plus a margin of (i) 3.75% or 5.50% in the case of revolving loans, depending on the applicable assets corresponding to the borrowing base pursuant to which the applicable loans are made and (ii) 5.50% in the case of term loans. In addition, the Borrowers will be responsible for the Agent’s annual collateral monitoring fees as well as the lenders’ fees and expenses. The Borrowers may also be required to pay an unused line fee of 0.50% in respect of the undrawn portion of the revolving commitments, which is generally based on average daily usage of the revolving facility during the immediately preceding month.

The Credit Agreement contains representations and warranties, reporting and other affirmative covenants, and negative covenants that are generally customary for credit facilities of this type. Among others, the Credit Agreement contains various covenants that, subject to agreed-upon exceptions, limit the Borrowers’ and their respective subsidiaries’ ability to incur indebtedness, grant liens, enter into sale and leaseback transactions, enter into swap agreements, make loans, acquisitions and investments, change the nature of their business, acquire or sell assets or consolidate or merge with or into other persons or entities, declare or pay dividends or make other restricted payments, enter into transactions with affiliates, enter into
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burdensome agreements, change fiscal year, amend organizational documents, and use proceeds to fund any activities of or business with any person that is the subject of governmental sanctions. In addition, the Credit Agreement requires that, for any period commencing upon the occurrence of an event of default or excess availability under the Credit Agreement being less than the greater of $5.0 million and 15% of the revolving commitments until such time as no event of default is continuing and excess availability under the Credit Agreement is at least the greater of $5.0 million and 15% of the revolving commitments for a period of 60 consecutive days, the Borrowers satisfy a consolidated fixed charge coverage ratio of not less than 1.10:1.00. The Credit Agreement also includes customary events of default, the occurrence of which, following any applicable grace period, would permit the lenders to, among other things, declare the principal, accrued interest and other obligations of the Borrowers under the Credit Agreement to be immediately due and payable, and exercise rights and remedies available to the lenders under the Credit Agreement or applicable law or equity.

In connection with the Credit Agreement, the Borrowers entered into a pledge and security agreement pursuant to which the obligations under the Credit Agreement are secured on a senior secured basis (subject to permitted liens) by substantially all assets of the Borrowers and substantially all assets of any future guarantors.

As of September 30, 2023, an aggregate principal amount of $6.4 million was outstanding pursuant to the revolving credit facility and an aggregate principal amount of $4.2 million was outstanding pursuant to the term loan facility.

Acquisition of L3Harris Space and Navigation Business

On April 29, 2022, we completed the previously announced acquisition of the L3Harris Technologies, Inc. (“L3H”) Space and Navigation business (“S&N”) pursuant to that certain Sale Agreement, dated as of February 14, 2022 (as amended, the “Sale Agreement”), entered into by and among the Company, Ringo Acquisition Sub, Inc. and L3H, pursuant to which we acquired certain intellectual property, assets, and liabilities of S&N for aggregate consideration of approximately $5.0 million, exclusive of transaction costs and expenses and subject to certain post-closing working capital adjustments. Following the completion of the working capital adjustments, the final purchase price was approximately $4.9 million.

Economic Conditions

The increased instability of global economic and inflationary risks are adding to the uncertainty of our business. These adverse conditions could result in longer sales cycles, increased costs to manufacture our products, and increased price competition. Given the dynamic nature of these macroeconomic conditions, we cannot reasonably estimate their full impact on our ongoing business, results of operations, and overall financial performance.

Other Significant Actions that Affect the Comparability of Our Operating Results and Financial Condition

Critical Accounting Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements require us to make estimates and judgements that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure at the date of our financial statements. Critical accounting estimates are those estimates made that involve a significant level of estimation uncertainty and have had or are reasonably likely to have an impact on our statement of operations. We believe that our accounting policies for goodwill, intangible assets, and other long-lived assets are the only estimates critical to an understanding and evaluation of our financial results for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, as discussed below. We develop estimates based on historical experience and on various assumptions about the future that are believed to be reasonable based on the best information available to us. The reported financial position or results of operations may be materially different under changed conditions or when using different estimates and assumptions, particularly with respect to significant accounting policies. In the event that estimates or assumptions prove to differ from actual results, adjustments are made in subsequent periods to reflect more current information. We have other significant accounting policies that do not generally require subjective estimates or judgments or would not have a material impact on our results of operations. Our significant accounting policies are described in Note 2 – Summary of Significant Accounting Policies.

Inventory

Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value (first-in, first-out). Inventory that is expected to be used within the next twelve months is classified as current inventory. We write-down inventory once it has been determined that conditions exist that may not allow the inventory to be sold for its intended purpose or the inventory is determined to be excess or obsolete
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based on assumptions about future demand and market conditions. The charge related to inventory write-downs is recorded as a cost of revenue. We evaluate inventory levels at least quarterly against sales forecasts on a significant part-by-part basis, in addition to determining its overall inventory risk. We have incurred, and may in the future incur, charges to write-down inventory.

Long-Lived Intangible and Other Assets

We follow FASB ASC Topic 360, Property Plant, and Equipment (“ASC 360”). ASC 360 requires review of long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of intangible assets with estimated lives and other long-lived assets is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset or asset group to future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If these comparisons indicate that an asset is not recoverable, we will recognize an impairment loss for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset or asset group exceeds the related estimated fair value. Estimated fair value is based on either discounted future operating cash flows or appraised values, depending on the nature of the asset.

During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, for the reporting unit formerly known as Aerospace & Defense, an indication of goodwill impairment (after electing to quantitatively test goodwill) was a trigger to test long-lived assets, and for the discontinued reporting unit formerly known as Broadband, the change in intended use of our leased facilities and right-of-use (ROU) assets due to the restructuring of our business led to reevaluating those retained asset groups. Recoverability of the long-lived assets was measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset groups to the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset groups. The comparison indicated that certain of the asset groups was not recoverable, and an impairment of $1.4 million was recorded, as this was the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group exceeded the related estimated fair value, which was based on discounted future operating cash flows.

During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, there was a triggering event of negative cash flows and operating losses at the FOG asset group level within the Inertial Navigation product line of the A&D segment that indicated the carrying amounts of our long-lived assets may not have been recoverable. In accordance with ASC 360, with regard to our long-lived assets, we performed an undiscounted cash flow analysis and concluded that the carrying value of the asset group was not recoverable. Accordingly, we then performed an analysis to estimate the fair value of the other long-lived assets and recognized an impairment charge of $3.0 million against the FOG property, plant, and equipment for the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group’s other long-lived assets exceeded their estimated fair value.

Goodwill and Indefinite Lived Intangible Assets

We follow the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”). ASC 350 requires the completion of a goodwill impairment test and test of other indefinite lived intangible assets at least annually based on either an optional qualitative assessment (Step 0) or a quantitative analysis (Step 1) comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit or indefinite lived intangible asset to its carrying value as of the test date.

During the quarter ended June 30, 2023, we elected to change our annual test date from December 31st of each year to July 1st of each year, unless there are indications requiring a more frequent impairment test. Any impairment charges are based on the quantitative (Step 1) analysis. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, we performed a qualitative analysis (Step 0) of goodwill at December 31, 2022 to meet the annual criteria, and after the change in annual test date to July 1st, we subsequently, at July 1, 2023 elected to proceed directly to a quantitative analysis (Step 1) of the Company's goodwill and indefinite lived intangible asset related to a certain Company trademark.

The July 1, 2023 indefinite-lived intangible asset test included a certain Company trademark as of July 1, 2023. The quantitative (Step 1) analysis performed over such trademark utilized the relief from royalty method of the income approach to determine the fair value. It concluded that the carrying value of such trademark, which was $2.2 million, exceeded the fair value and impairment expense of $1.3 million was recorded. We performed a qualitative (Step 0) analysis over the in-process research and development (IPR&D) at July 1 2023. However, in the quarter ended September 30, 2023, it was determined that the Company would abandon the project underlying the remaining IPR&D and, as a result of this determination, the carrying value of $0.8 million was impaired during the quarter ended September 30, 2023.

The July 1, 2023 quantitative (Step 1) analysis of goodwill utilized a weighted income and market approach concluded that the carrying value of the reporting unit that carried the goodwill, including goodwill (adjusted for trademark impairment) was greater than the fair value of equity of the reporting unit, and impairment expense of $19.0 million was recorded.
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Purchase Accounting

The Company accounts for acquisitions of businesses under the acquisition method of accounting. Under the acquisition method of accounting, the Company records assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their estimated fair value on the date of acquisition. Goodwill is measured as the excess of the fair value of the consideration transferred over the fair value of the identifiable net assets. Estimated fair values of acquired assets and liabilities are provisional and could change as additional information is received. When appropriate, our estimates of the fair values of assets and liabilities acquired include assistance from independent third-party valuation firms. Valuations are finalized as soon as practical, but not later than one year from the acquisition date. Any subsequent changes to purchase price allocations result in a corresponding adjustment to goodwill.

Inventory, long-lived assets, goodwill, and other intangible assets generally represent the largest components of our acquisitions. Inventory is valued utilizing net realizable value method. Property, plant, and equipment is valued utilizing a cost and market approach. Intangible assets are recognized at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition and generally consist of customer relationships, technology, in-process research and development (“IPR&D”), and trademarks. Determination of the estimated fair value of intangible assets requires judgment. The estimated fair value of technology, IPR&D, and trademarks, is determined utilizing the relief from royalty method. Under this form of income approach, a royalty rate based on observed market royalties is applied to projected revenue supporting the technology, IPR&D, and trademarks and discounted to present value. The estimated fair value of customer relationships is determined using the multiple period excess earnings method. Under this form of income approach, net cash flows attributable to the subject asset are typically calculated net of fair returns on and of all assets that are necessary to realize the cash flows. Cash flows of the subject intangible asset are charged amounts representing a return of and a return on these contributory assets (based on the fair values of the contributory assets).

Results of Operations

A discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 compared to the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 is presented below.
Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands, except percentages)20232022Change
Revenue$97,716 $45,318$52,398 115.6 %
Cost of revenue74,323 41,25233,071 80.2 
Gross profit23,393 4,06619,327 475.3 
Operating expense:
Selling, general, and administrative32,731 28,2244,507 16.0 
Research and development17,910 13,7824,128 30.0 
Impairment22,612 2,956 19,656 665.0 
Severance27 140 (113)(80.7)
Gain on sale of assets(1,147)— (1,147)(100.0)
Total operating expense72,13345,10227,03159.9%
Operating loss(48,740)(41,036)(7,704)(18.8)%

Revenue

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, revenue increased from the prior fiscal year primarily driven by the acquisitions of S&N and EMCORE Chicago. Together, S&N and EMCORE Chicago contributed to a full year of revenue, $67.0 million, in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 and only a partial year of revenue, $16.2 million, in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 which represented an increase of $50.8 million.

Gross Profit

Gross profit is revenue less cost of revenue. Cost of revenue consists of raw materials, compensation expense, depreciation, amortization, accretion expense, and other manufacturing overhead costs, expenses associated with excess and obsolete inventories, and product warranty costs. Historically, gross profit as a percentage of revenue, which we refer to as gross margin, has fluctuated significantly due to revenue and production volumes over fixed manufacturing costs, product mix, manufacturing yields, and inventory charges (e.g., scrap factors, excess and obsolete, inventory valuation adjustments).

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For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, gross profit increased from the prior fiscal year primarily driven by higher product revenue. Gross margin also increased as a result of a more favorable product mix.

Selling, General, and Administrative

Selling, general, and administrative (“SG&A”) consists primarily of personnel related expenditures for sales and marketing, IT, finance, legal, and human resources support functions.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, SG&A increased from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the acquisitions of S&N and EMCORE Chicago. Together, S&N and EMCORE Chicago contributed to a full year of SG&A expenses in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023 and only a partial year of SG&A expenses compared to the prior period which represented an increase of $3.5 million.

Research and Development

Research and development (“R&D”) include personnel related expenditures, project costs, and facility-related expenses. We intend to continue to invest in R&D programs because they are essential to our future growth.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, R&D expense increased from the prior fiscal year primarily due to the acquisitions of S&N and Emcore Chicago. Together, S&N and EMCORE Chicago contributed to a full year of research and development expenses compared to the prior period which represented an increase of $5.2 million.

Impairment charge

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, impairment charge totaled approximately $22.6 million as we wrote down goodwill of $19.0 million, trademarks of $1.3 million, IPR&D of $0.8 million and asset groups of $1.4 million.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, impairment charge totaled approximately $3.0 million as we wrote down long-lived assets related to our FOG products as there was a triggering event of negative cash flows and operating losses at the FOG asset group level that indicated the carrying amounts of our long-lived assets may not be recoverable.

Severance

For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, severance totaled approximately $27.0 thousand and $140.0 thousand, respectively, associated with headcount reductions, primarily at our Alhambra, CA facility. See Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Recent Developments under the heading “Restructuring” for discussion on severance expense related to discontinued operations.

Gain on Sale of Assets

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, gain on sale of assets totaled approximately $1.1 million, primarily related to the consummation of the sale of the real property interests in the Tinley Park Facility.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

We have recently experienced significant losses from our operations and used a significant amount of cash in connection with strategic acquisitions to further our strategy of focusing on our Inertial Navigation business. As a result of our recent cash shortage, we have taken actions to manage our liquidity and will need to continue to manage our liquidity as we continue to restructure our operations to focus on our Inertial Navigation business. As of September 30, 2023, cash and cash equivalents totaled $26.7 million and net working capital totaled $63.6 million. Net working capital, calculated as current assets (including inventory) minus current liabilities, is a financial metric we use which represents available operating liquidity.

We have taken a number of actions to continue to support our operations and meet our obligations:

In August 2023, we closed our offering of 22,600,000 shares of our common stock at a price of $0.50 per share, and, to certain investors, Pre-Funded Warrants to purchase 11,900,000 shares of our common stock at a price of $0.49999999 for each Pre-Funded Warrant (which represents the per share public offering price for our common stock in such offering less the $0.00000001 per share exercise price for each such Pre-Funded Warrant), resulting in net proceeds to us from the offering, after deducting the placement agent commissions and other offering expenses, of approximately
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$15.6 million. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Recent Developments under the heading “August 2023 Equity Offering” for additional information regarding the equity offering.
In April 2023, we initiated a restructuring program that includes the strategic shutdown of our Broadband business segment (including our cable TV, wireless, sensing, and chips product lines) and the discontinuance of our defense optoelectronics product line. Our Board of Directors performed a thorough review of a number of factors including the competitive landscape, declining revenue and gross profit of these discontinued businesses, the current and expected profitability of these discontinued businesses, our cost structure, and our strategic focus on our Inertial Navigation segment, and concluded that these discontinued businesses are non-strategic, currently unsustainable, and cannot be restructured in a way that will allow us to achieve profitable growth and cash preservation. During the quarter ended September 30, 2023, the Broadband business segment and defense optoelectronics product line were considered as held for sale based upon (i) the existence of an executed non-binding letter of intent with respect to the Divestiture Transaction as described above as of such date and (ii) in consideration of ongoing negotiations for the sale of the chips business. Given the prospective sale of the Broadband business segment and defense optoelectronics product line we have identified these asset groups as discontinued operations during the quarter ended September 30, 2023. We discontinued operations of our chips business and indium phosphide wafer fabrication facility during the quarter ended September 30, 2023. As a result of this restructuring and the Divestiture Transaction, we have eliminated approximately 75 positions in the U.S. (primarily in Alhambra, California) and approximately 25 positions in China, collectively representing approximately 22% of our total workforce, and expect to consolidate facility space by reducing the space used at our Alhambra campus from five to two buildings (including closure of our indium phosphide wafer fabrication facility in Alhambra), will relocate personnel in Concord, California to the operations area from the adjacent office building, and transferred our manufacturing support and engineering center in China pursuant to the Divestiture Transaction, collectively representing an approximately 25% reduction in the aggregate square footage occupied by our facilities. One-time employee severance and termination costs related to the restructuring of approximately $2.3 million was recognized in the loss from discontinued operations in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023. We anticipate that material cash and non-cash charges will be incurred and recorded in future reporting periods and we may incur additional expenses in connection with the restructuring that are not currently contemplated. The charges that we expect to incur in connection with the restructuring are estimates and subject to a number of assumptions, and actual results may differ materially.
In February 2023, we closed our offering of 15,454,546 shares of our common stock at a price of $1.10 per share, resulting in net proceeds to us from the offering of $15.4 million. See Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Recent Developments under the heading “February 2023 Equity Offering” for additional information regarding the equity offering.
In December 2022, we consummated the sale of the real property interests in the Tinley Park Facility to the Tinley Park Buyer, resulting in net proceeds of approximately $10.3 million, pursuant to the terms of the Tinley Park Purchase Agreement.
In August 2022, we entered into the Credit Agreement with Wingspire that provides us with (a) an asset-based revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of up to $40.0 million, subject to a borrowing base consisting of eligible accounts receivable and eligible inventory (subject to certain reserves), and (b) a term loan facility in an aggregate principal amount of $5,965,000. As of September 30, 2023, an aggregate principal amount of $20.9 million was outstanding pursuant to the revolving credit facility and an aggregate principal amount of $4.2 million was outstanding pursuant to the term loan facility, and an additional $9.9 million was available for borrowing. See Note 11 - Credit Agreement  in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information regarding the Credit Agreement.

Our existing balances of cash and cash equivalents, cash flows from operations, and amounts expected to be available under the Credit Agreement, together with additional actions we may take to further reduce our expenses and/or additional funds we may receive if we elect to raise capital through additional debt or equity issuances or from our efforts to monetize certain assets, are anticipated to provide us with sufficient financial resources to meet cash requirements for operations, working capital, and capital expenditures for at least the next 12 months from the issuance date of these financial statements. As a result, these financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis. However, we may not be successful in executing on our plans to manage our liquidity, including recognizing the expected benefits from our restructuring described above, and our ability to continue to operate as a going concern could be impaired, which could in turn cause a significant decline in our stock price and could result in a significant loss of value for our shareholders.

The Credit Agreement subjects us to various financial and other affirmative and negative covenants with which we must comply on an ongoing or periodic basis. These include financial covenants pertaining to a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio and covenants requiring the mandatory prepayment of amounts outstanding under the revolver under specified circumstances. The agreements also subject us to various restrictions on our ability to engage in certain activities, such as raising capital or acquiring businesses. These restrictions may limit or restrict our cash flow and our ability to pursue business opportunities or strategies that we would otherwise consider to be in our best interests. In addition, the Credit Agreement contains a cash dominion provision, requiring us to maintain a minimum amount of liquidity. As of September 30, 2023, this minimum amount
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of liquidity that we needed to maintain was $12.5 million. If we fall below this minimum amount of liquidity for a period of three consecutive days, or if there occurs an event of default under the Credit Agreement, then our lender can exercise certain rights, including taking control of our bank accounts and cash resources. In addition, if an event of default occurs under the Credit Agreement, our lenders can accelerate the maturity of our indebtedness under that agreement to make it due and payable immediately. If we trigger the cash dominion provision or if an event of default occurs under the Credit Agreement and if in either case our lenders elect to exercise their rights, we may not be able to pay our debts and other monetary obligations as they come due, and our ability to continue to operate as a going concern could be impaired, which could in turn cause a significant decline in our stock price and could result in a significant loss of value for our shareholders.

We continue to explore a range of options to further address our capitalization and liquidity. If we raise funds by issuing debt securities or incurring loans, this form of financing would have rights, preferences, and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. The availability and the terms under which we can borrow additional capital could be disadvantageous, and the terms of debt securities or borrowings could impose significant restrictions on our operations. Macroeconomic conditions and credit markets could also impact the availability and cost of potential future debt financing. If we raise capital through the issuance of additional equity, such sales and issuance would dilute the ownership interests of the existing holders of our common stock. There can be no assurances that any additional debt or equity financing would be available to us or if available, that such financing would be on favorable terms to us. In addition, if adequate funds are not available to fund our future operations or meet our Credit Agreement obligations, we may need to curb our business plans, which could have a material adverse impact on our business prospects and results of operations.

Cash Flow
Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands, except percentages)20232022Change
Net cash used in operating activities (net of acquired assets and assumed liabilities)$(30,270)$(24,258)$(6,012)24.8  %
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities$9,155 $(62,940)$72,095 114.5  %
Net cash provided by financing activities$24,400 $15,200 $9,200 60.5  %

Operating Activities

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, operating activities used cash of $30.3 million, primarily due to net loss of $49.4 million and adjustments for non-cash charges, including depreciation, amortization, and accretion expense of $4.8 million, stock-based compensation expense of $5.4 million, an impairment charge of $22.6 million offset by a gain on disposal of assets of $1.1 million. The change in operating assets and liabilities was primarily the result of an increase in accounts receivable of $1.9 million, an increase in customer deposits of $3.7 million, and a decrease in accounts payable of $0.5 million, offset by a decrease in contract assets of $4.6 million, a decrease in inventory of $6.0 million, a decrease in other assets of $3.2 million, an increase in ROU liability of $0.9 million, and an increase in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $0.3 million.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, operating activities used cash of $24.3 million, primarily due to net loss of $40.8 million and adjustments for non-cash charges, including depreciation, amortization, and accretion expense of $1.7 million, stock-based compensation expense of $4.6 million, an impairment charge of $3.0 million, and changes in operating assets and liabilities (or working capital components) of $7.1 million. The change in operating assets and liabilities was primarily the result of a decrease in accounts receivable of $1.6 million, a decrease in inventory of $2.4 million and an increase in accounts payable of $1.1 million, an increase in contract liabilities of $2.7 million, and increase in accrued expenses and other current liabilities of $3.0 million, offset by an increase in contract assets of $2.7 million and a decrease in current operating lease liabilities of $0.4 million.

Investing Activities

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, cash provided by investing activities totaled $9.2 million, primarily due to $10.9 million from the disposal and purchase of property, plant and equipment, net.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, investing activities used cash of $62.9 million, primarily due to $59.9 million used in our acquisitions of the S&N and EMCORE Chicago businesses and capital-related expenditures of $3.1 million.

Financing Activities

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For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, financing activities provided cash of $24.4 million, primarily due to proceeds from sale of common stock, net of issuance costs, of $31.0 million, offset by payments to our line of credit of $3.5 million.

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, financing activities provided cash of $15.2 million, primarily due to proceeds from credit facilities of $22.7 million, offset by payments towards credit facilities of $7.2 million and taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards of $0.3 million.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments

Contractual obligations and commitments over the next five fiscal years are summarized in the table below and are presented as of September 30, 2023:
(in thousands)TotalLess Than a Year1 to 3 Years4 to 5 YearsOver 5 Years
Purchase obligations$27,375 $26,719 $646 $10 $— 
Asset retirement obligations4,194 — 1,984 — 2,210 
Operating lease obligations39,589 4,614 7,209 5,587 22,179 
Pension obligations5,536 613 1,130 1,125 2,668 
Total contractual obligations and commitments$76,694 $31,946 $10,969 $6,722 $27,057 

Interest payments are not included in the contractual obligations and commitments table above since they are insignificant to consolidated results of operations.

Purchase Obligations

Purchase obligations represent an estimate of all open purchase orders and contractual obligations in the ordinary course of business for which we have not received the goods or services as of September 30, 2023. Although open purchase orders are considered enforceable and legally binding, the terms generally allow us the option to cancel, reschedule, and adjust requirements based on business needs prior to the delivery of goods or performance of services. The purchase obligations of $27.4 million as of September 30, 2023, set forth above primarily relates to open purchase orders to our component suppliers, service partners, and other vendors.

Asset Retirement Obligations

We have known conditional Asset Retirement Obligation (“ARO”) conditions, such as certain asset decommissioning and restoration of rented facilities to be performed in the future. ARO includes assumptions related to renewal option periods where we expect to extend facility lease terms. Revisions in estimated liabilities can result from revisions of estimated inflation rates, escalating retirement costs, and changes in the estimated timing of settling the ARO. See Note 13 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to ARO.

Operating Lease Obligations

Operating leases include non-cancelable terms and exclude renewal option periods, property taxes, insurance, and maintenance expenses on leased properties. See Note 13 - Commitments and Contingencies in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to operating lease obligations.

Pension Obligations

Future pension obligation payments are subject to revaluation and are dependent on pension fund asset performance and pension obligation valuation assumptions. See Note 9 – Benefit Plans in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to pension obligations.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements other than operating leases described above that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future material effect on consolidated financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures, or capital resources.
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ITEM 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.

Not applicable.

ITEM 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data.

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EMCORE CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$26,211 $25,099 
Restricted cash495 520 
Accounts receivable, net of credit loss of $356 and $337, respectively
15,575 13,823 
Contract assets8,402 3,803 
Inventory28,905 26,282 
Prepaid expenses4,612 4,061 
Other current assets922 1,335 
Assets held for sale - current7,264  
Total current assets92,386 74,923 
Property, plant, and equipment, net15,517 24,576 
Goodwill 17,894 
Operating lease right-of-use assets21,564 23,144 
Other intangible assets, net12,245 14,790 
Other non-current assets2,201 2,351 
Assets held for sale - non-current 31,404 
Total assets$143,913 $189,082 
LIABILITIES and SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$9,683 $10,379 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities8,471 6,697 
Contract liabilities1,630 5,271 
Loan payable - current852 852 
Financing payable460  
Operating lease liabilities - current3,033 2,171 
Liabilities held for sale - current4,662  
Total current liabilities28,791 25,370 
Line of credit6,418 9,599 
Operating lease liabilities - non-current3,330 5,042 
Loan payable - non-current20,882 21,568 
Asset retirement obligations4,194 4,664 
Other long-term liabilities8 106 
Liabilities held for sale - non-current 4,765 
Total liabilities$63,623 $71,114 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 13)
Shareholders’ equity:
Common stock, no par value, 100,000 shares authorized; 84,014 shares issued and 77,108 shares outstanding as of September 30, 2023; 44,497 shares issued and 37,591 shares outstanding as of September 30, 2022
825,119 787,347 
Treasury stock at cost; 6,906 shares as of September 30, 2023 and September 30, 2022
(47,721)(47,721)
Accumulated other comprehensive income350 441 
Accumulated deficit(697,458)(622,099)
Total shareholders’ equity80,290 117,968 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity$143,913 $189,082 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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EMCORE CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands, except per share data)20232022
Revenue$97,716 $45,318 
Cost of revenue74,323 41,252 
Gross profit23,393 4,066 
Operating expense:
Selling, general, and administrative32,731 28,224 
Research and development17,910 13,782 
Impairment 22,612 2,956 
Severance27 140 
Gain on sale of assets(1,147) 
Total operating expense72,133 45,102 
Operating loss(48,740)(41,036)
Other (expense) income:
Interest expense, net(751)(35)
Foreign exchange loss(1) 
Other income121 171 
Total other (expense) income(631)136 
Loss from continuing operations before income tax (expense) benefit(49,371)(40,900)
Income tax (expense) benefit from continuing operations(42)139 
Net loss from continuing operations$(49,413)$(40,761)
(Loss) income from discontinued operations including loss on disposal of $9.6 million, net of tax benefit of $0
$(25,946)$16,428 
Net loss$(75,359)$(24,333)
Pension adjustment(91)441 
Comprehensive loss$(75,450)$(23,892)
Per share data:
Net loss on continuing operations per basic and diluted share$(0.96)$(1.09)
Net (loss) income on discontinued operations per basic and diluted share$(0.50)$0.44 
Net loss per share basic and diluted$(1.46)$(0.65)
Weighted-average number of basic and diluted shares and preferred warrants outstanding51,510 37,269 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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EMCORE CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY

Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Shares of common stock
Balance, beginning of period37,591 36,984 
Stock-based compensation1,463 601 
Stock option exercises 6 
Sale of common stock38,054  
Balance, end of period77,108 37,591 
Value of common stock
Balance, beginning of period$787,347 $782,266 
Stock-based compensation6,888 5,374 
Stock option exercises 29 
Tax withholding paid on behalf of employees for stock-based awards(164)(322)
Sale of common stock, net of offering costs31,048  
Balance, end of period825,119 787,347 
Treasury stock, beginning and end of period(47,721)(47,721)
Accumulated other comprehensive income
Balance, beginning of period441  
Pension adjustment(91)441 
Balance, end of period350 441 
Accumulated deficit
Balance, beginning of period(622,099)(597,766)
Net loss(75,359)(24,333)
Balance, end of period(697,458)(622,099)
Total shareholders’ equity$80,290 $117,968 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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EMCORE CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net loss$(75,359)$(24,333)
Less: (Loss) income from discontinued operations, net of tax(25,946)16,428 
Loss from continuing operations(49,413)(40,761)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization expense4,848 1,728 
Stock-based compensation expense5,438 4,569 
Provision adjustments related to credit loss193 171 
Provision adjustments related to product warranty120 17 
Loss on disposal of property, plant, and equipment(1,147) 
Impairment charge22,612 2,956 
Total non-cash adjustments32,064 9,441 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable(1,946)1,563 
Contract assets(4,599)(3,393)
Inventory(5,989)2,380 
Other assets3,197 131 
Accounts payable(522)1,097 
Contract liabilities(3,670)2,650 
Operating lease liabilities - current862 (381)
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities(254)3,015 
Total change in operating assets and liabilities(12,921)7,062 
Net cash used in operating activities - continuing operations(30,270)(24,258)
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities - discontinued operations(3,367)28,483 
Net cash (used in) provided by operating activities(33,637)4,225 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Purchase of equipment(1,856)(3,079)
Acquisition of business, net of cash acquired96 (59,861)
Proceeds from disposal of property, plant, and equipment10,915  
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities - continuing operations9,155 (62,940)
Net cash provided by investing activities - discontinued operations315 243 
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities9,470 (62,697)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from borrowings of credit facilities393 22,715 
Payments towards credit facilities(3,507)(7,222)
Payments towards borrowings from financing payable(2,731) 
Payments to Notes Payable Borrowing(639) 
Proceeds from sale of common stock34,249 29 
Issuance cost associated with sale of common stock(3,201) 
Taxes paid related to net share settlement of equity awards(164)(322)
Net cash provided by financing activities24,400 15,200 
Effect of exchange rate changes provided by foreign currency854 (317)
Net (decrease) increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash1,087 (43,589)
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at beginning of period25,619 69,208 
Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash at end of period$26,706 $25,619 
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SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION
Cash paid during the period for interest$1,230 $280 
Cash paid during the period for income taxes$146 $574 
NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Changes in accounts payable related to purchases of equipment$(373)$(352)
Changes in accounts payable related to financing$460 $ 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.
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EMCORE CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
Years Ended September 30, 2023 and 2022

NOTE 1.    Description of Business

We are a leading provider of sensors and navigation systems for the aerospace and defense market. Over the last five years, EMCORE has expanded its scale and portfolio of inertial sensor products through the acquisitions of Systron Donner Inertial, Inc. (“SDI”) in June 2019, the Space and Navigation business of L3Harris Technologies, Inc. (“S&N”) in April 2022, and the FOG and Inertial Navigation Systems business of KVH Industries, Inc. (“EMCORE Chicago”) in August 2022. Our multi-year transition from a broadband company to an inertial navigation company has now been completed following the sale of our cable TV, wireless, sensing and defense optoelectronics business lines and the shutdown of our chips product line and indium phosphide wafer fabrication operations.

We have fully vertically-integrated manufacturing capability at our headquarters in Alhambra, CA, and at our facilities in Budd Lake, NJ, Concord, CA, and Tinley Park, IL. These facilities support our manufacturing strategy for Fiber Optic Gyroscope (“FOG”), Ring Laser Gyro (“RLG”), Photonic Integrated Chip (“PIC”), and Quartz Micro Electro-Mechanical System (“QMEMS”) products for inertial navigation. Our manufacturing facilities maintain ISO 9001 quality management certification, and we are AS9100 aerospace quality certified at our facilities in Alhambra, CA, Concord, CA, and Budd Lake, NJ. Our best-in-class components and systems support a broad array of inertial navigation applications.

Our operations include wafer fabrication (lithium niobate and quartz), device design and production, fiber optic module and subsystem design and manufacture, and PIC-based and QMEMS-based component design and manufacture. Many of our manufacturing operations are computer-monitored or controlled to enhance production output and statistical control. Our manufacturing processes involve extensive quality assurance systems and performance testing.

NOTE 2.    Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Principles of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and include the assets, liabilities, shareholders’ equity, and operating results of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The Company is not the primary beneficiary of, nor do we hold a significant variable interest in, any variable interest entity.

Discontinued Operations

In April 2023, we initiated a restructuring program that included the strategic shutdown of our Broadband business segment (including our cable TV, wireless, sensing and chips product lines) and the discontinuance of our defense optoelectronics product line. During the quarter ended September 30, 2023, the Broadband business segment and defense optoelectronics product line were considered as held for sale based upon (i) the existence of an executed non-binding letter of intent to sell our Broadband business segment (other than our chips product line) and our defense optoelectronics product line and (ii) in consideration of ongoing negotiations for the sale of the chips business. Given the prospective sale of the Broadband business segment and defense optoelectronics product line, we identified these asset groups as discontinued operations during the quarter ended September 30, 2023. We ceased operations of our chips business and indium phosphide wafer fabrication facility during the quarter ended September 30, 2023. In accordance with the authoritative guidance for discontinued operations (Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) 205-20), the Company determined that these business lines met held-for sale and discontinued operations accounting criteria during the quarter ended September 30, 2023. Accordingly, the Company classified the results of these business lines as discontinued operations in its consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented. Additionally, the related assets and liabilities associated with these business lines were classified as held for sale in the consolidated balance sheets for all periods presented. See Note 16 — Discontinued Operations for additional information.

On October 11, 2023, the Company entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement to transfer substantially all of the assets and liabilities primarily related to the Company’s cable TV, wireless, sensing and defense optoelectronics business lines to Photonics Foundries, Inc. On October 24, 2023, the Company entered into a non-binding letter of intent with a buyer to sell substantially all of the assets and liabilities related to the Company’s chips business, including assets related to the Company’s indium phosphide wafer fabrication operations.

Going Concern Basis

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The consolidated financial statements included herein have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles assuming we will continue as a going concern. The going concern assumption contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. However, substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern exists.

We have recently experienced significant losses from our operations and used a significant amount of cash, amounting to a net loss of $75.4 million and net cash outflows from operations of $30.3 million for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, and we expect to continue to incur losses and use cash in our operations as we continue to restructure our business. As a result of our recent cash outflows, we have taken actions to manage our liquidity and will need to continue to manage our liquidity as we continue to restructure our operations to focus on our Inertial Navigation business. As of September 30, 2023, our cash and cash equivalents totaled $26.7 million and we had $9.9 million available under our Credit Agreement (as defined in Note 11 - Credit Agreement in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements).

We are evaluating the sufficiency of our existing balances of cash and cash equivalents, cash flows from operations, and amounts expected to be available under our Credit Agreement, together with additional actions we could take (including those
made in connection with our restructuring program announced in April 2023) to further reduce our expenses and/or potentially raising capital through additional debt or equity issuances, or from the potential monetization of certain assets. However, we may not be successful in executing on our plans to manage our liquidity, including recognizing the expected benefits from our previously announced restructuring program, or raising additional funds if we elect to do so, and as a result substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern exists.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, as of the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reported period. Such estimates include accounts receivable, inventories, goodwill, long-lived assets, product warranty liabilities, legal contingencies, income taxes, asset retirement obligations, and pension obligation, as well as the evaluation associated with the going concern determination.

We develop estimates based on historical experience and on various assumptions about the future that are believed to be reasonable based on the best information available to us. Our reported financial position or results of operations may be materially different under changed conditions or when using different estimates and assumptions, particularly with respect to significant accounting policies. In the event that estimates or assumptions prove to differ from actual results, adjustments are made in subsequent periods to reflect more current information.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that may subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of accounts receivable. When necessary, we perform credit evaluations on customers’ financial condition and occasionally we request deposits in advance of shipping product to customers. These financial evaluations require significant judgment and are based on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, current economic trends, historical payment patterns, bad debt write off experience, and financial review of the particular customer.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents consists primarily of bank deposits and highly liquid short-term investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase.

Accounts Receivable

We regularly evaluate the collectability of accounts receivable and maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of customers to meet their financial obligations to us. The allowance is based on the age of receivables and a specific identification of receivables considered at risk of collection. We classify charges associated with the allowance for doubtful accounts as selling, general, and administrative expense.

Inventory

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Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value (first-in, first-out). Inventory that is expected to be used within the next 12 months is classified as current inventory. We write down inventory once it has been determined that conditions exist that may not allow the inventory to be sold for its intended purpose or the inventory is determined to be excess or obsolete based on assumptions about future demand and market conditions. The charge related to inventory write-downs is recorded as cost of revenue. We evaluate inventory levels at least quarterly against an estimate of future demand on a significant part-by-part basis, in addition to determining its overall inventory risk. We have incurred, and may in the future incur, charges to write-down of inventory. See Note 6 - Inventory in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to inventory.

Property, Plant, and Equipment

Property, plant, and equipment are recorded at cost. Plant and equipment are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. We depreciate equipment over three to seven years, furniture and fixtures over five years, computer hardware and software over three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the lesser of the asset life or the lease term. Expenditures for repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred. The costs for major renewals and improvements are capitalized and depreciated over their estimated useful lives of the related asset. The cost and related accumulated depreciation of the assets are removed from the accounts upon disposition and any resulting gain or loss is reflected in the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss. See Note 7 - Property, Plant, and Equipment, net in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to the impairment charge during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Intangible assets of the Company that are considered to have an indefinite life include goodwill and a certain Company trademark. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price in a business combination over the fair value of the net tangible and intangible assets acquired. We follow the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 350, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (“ASC 350”). ASC 350 requires the completion of a goodwill impairment test and test of other indefinite lived intangible assets at least annually based on either an optional qualitative assessment (Step 0) or a quantitative analysis (Step 1) comparing the estimated fair value of a reporting unit or indefinite lived intangible asset to its carrying value as of the test date.

Valuation of Long-lived Assets

Long-lived assets consist primarily of intangible assets, net and property, plant, and equipment, net. Since long-lived assets are subject to amortization and depreciation/amortization, we review these assets for impairment in accordance with the provisions of ASC 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment. Intangible assets that not considered to have an indefinite useful life are itemized in Note 8 - Intangible Assets and Goodwill and are amortized over their useful lives. We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amount may not be recoverable. Impairment testing of long-lived assets consists of determining whether the carrying amount of the long-lived asset or asset group is recoverable, in other words, whether the sum of the future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset or asset group exceeds the carrying amount. The determination of the existence of impairment involves judgments that are subjective in nature and may require the use of estimates in forecasting future results and cash flows related to an asset or group of assets. In making this determination, we use certain assumptions, including estimates of future cash flows expected to be generated by these assets, which are based on additional assumptions such as asset utilization, the length of service that assets will be used in operations, and estimated salvage values.

Leases

The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at its inception. Right of use (ROU) assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses its estimated incremental borrowing rate in determining the present value of lease payments considering the term of the lease, which is derived from information available at the lease commencement date. The lease term includes renewal options when it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised, and excludes termination options. To the extent that the Company’s agreements have variable lease payments, the Company includes variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate and excludes those that depend on facts or circumstances occurring after the commencement date, other than the passage of time. Lease expense for these leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company has elected not to recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities that arise from short-term (12 months or less) leases for any class of
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underlying asset. Operating leases are included in operating lease ROU assets, current operating lease liabilities, and non-current operating lease liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.

Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations

Pursuant to ASC 410, Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations, an ARO is recorded when there is a legal obligation associated with the retirement of a tangible long-lived asset and the fair value of the liability can reasonably be estimated. Upon initial recognition of an ARO, a company increases the carrying amount of the long-lived asset by the same amount as the liability. Over time, the liabilities are accreted for the change in their present value through charges to operations costs. The initial capitalized costs are depleted over the useful lives of the related assets through charges to depreciation, and/or amortization. If the fair value of the estimated ARO changes, an adjustment is recorded to both the ARO and the asset retirement cost. Revisions in estimated liabilities can result from revisions of estimated inflation rates, escalating retirement costs, and changes in the estimated timing of settling ARO liabilities.

Pension Plan

With the acquisition of S&N, we acquired the assets and assumed the liabilities associated with a pension plan, now named the EMCORE Space & Navigation Corporation Pension Plan (the “Pension Plan”), which is a defined benefit pension plan providing postretirement benefits to certain employees. As of July 1, 2022, the Pension Plan was amended to freeze benefit plan accruals for participants.

The investments in the Pension Plan are measured at fair value using quoted market prices or the net asset value per share as a practical expedient. The projected benefit obligations associated with the Pension Plan are determined based on actuarial models utilizing mortality tables and discount rates applied to the expected benefit term.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

We determine the fair value of financial instruments in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures. ASC Topic 820 (“ASC 820”), Fair Value Measurements, establishes a valuation hierarchy for disclosure of the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. This standard describes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value:

Level 1 inputs are unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 inputs are quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable for the assets or liabilities, either directly or indirectly, through market corroboration, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs based on assumptions used to measure assets or liabilities at fair value.

Classification of an asset or liability within this hierarchy is determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value under ASC 820 must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.

Cash and cash equivalents consists primarily of bank deposits or highly liquid short-term investments with a maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase. Restricted cash represents cash temporarily reserved by the Company. Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash are based on Level 1 measurements. The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, contract assets, prepaid expenses, other current assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities, and contract liabilities approximate fair value because of the short maturity of these instruments.

Revenue Recognition

To determine the proper revenue recognition, we perform the following five steps: (a) identify the contract(s) with a customer; (b) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (c) determine the transaction price; (d) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (e) recognize revenue when (or as) we satisfy a performance obligation. We only apply the five step model to contracts when it is probable that we will collect the consideration we are entitled to in exchange for the goods or services we transfer to the customer.

The majority of revenues are from product sales to customers pursuant to purchase orders. Revenues from product sales are recognized when the customer obtains control of our product, which occurs at a point in time. The Company has elected to
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account for shipping and handling activities as a fulfillment cost as permitted by the standard. When we perform shipping and handling activities after the transfer of control to the customer (e.g. when control transfers prior to delivery), they are considered fulfillment activities, and accordingly, the costs are accrued when the related revenue is recognized. We expense incremental costs of obtaining a contract as and when incurred if the expected amortization period of the asset that we would have recognized is one year or less.

We also enter into non-recurring engineering contracts. We recognize revenue for these arrangements over time or at a point in time depending on our evaluation of when the customer obtains control of the promised goods or services. For contracts that include multiple performance obligations, we allocate revenue to each performance obligation based on estimates of the relative standalone selling price that we would charge the customer for each promised product or service.

In addition, we follow the percentage of completion method of revenue recognition for the majority of our S&N revenue, as these contracts typically are for products specific to the customer and there is no alternative use for the product. We recognize revenue progressively as the customer takes control of the manufactured products built to customer specifications. Under these S&N manufacturing contracts with customers, the customer controls all of the work-in-progress as products are being built.

In certain instances, inventory is maintained by customers at consigned locations. Revenues from consigned sales are recognized when the customer obtains control of our product, which occurs at a point in time. This is typically when the customer pulls product for use.

We use a number of wholesale distributors around the world and recognize revenue when the wholesale distributor obtains control of our product, which occurs at a point in time, typically upon shipment. Wholesale distributors are contractually obligated to pay us on standard commercial terms, consistent with our end-use customers. We do not sell to wholesale distributors on consignment and do not give wholesale distributors a right-of-return.

Receivables, Net

Receivables, net, include amounts billed and currently due from customers. The amounts due are stated at their net estimated realizable value. Payments are generally due within 90 days or less of invoicing and do not include a significant financing component. We maintain an allowance for credit loss to provide for the estimated amount of receivables that will not be collected. The allowance is based upon an assessment of customer creditworthiness, historical payment experience, the age of outstanding receivables, and collateral to the extent applicable.

Contract Assets

A contract asset is recognized when the Company has recognized revenue, but has not issued an invoice for payment. Contract assets are classified as current assets and transferred to receivables when the entitlement to payment becomes unconditional. The Company’s contract assets are generally converted to trade account receivables within 90 days, at which time the Company is entitled to payment of the fixed price upon delivery of the finished product subject to customer payment terms.

Contract Liabilities

A contract liability is recognized when the Company has billed and received payment from a customer, but has not yet earned revenue. Contract liabilities are classified as current liabilities and transferred to revenue when revenue recognition standards have been met.

Remaining Performance Obligations

Remaining performance obligations represent the transaction price of firm orders for long-term contracts which control has not transferred to the customer. As of September 30, 2023, the aggregate amount of the transaction price allocated to remaining performance obligations was $11.8 million. The Company expects to recognize revenue on the remaining performance obligations by fiscal year 2025.

Product Warranty Reserves

We provide customers with warranty claims for certain products and warranty-related services are not considered a separate performance obligation. Pursuant to ASC 450, Contingencies, we make estimates of product warranty expense using historical experience rates and accrue estimated warranty expense as a cost of revenue. We estimate the costs of warranty obligations
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based on historical experience of known product failure rates and anticipated rates of warranty claims, use of materials to repair or replace defective products, and service delivery costs incurred in correcting the product issues. In addition, from time to time, specific warranty accruals may be made if unforeseen technical problems arise.

Disaggregation of Revenue

For additional information on the disaggregated revenues by geographical region and major product category, see Note 15 – Revenue Information in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

Income Taxes

In accordance with the authoritative guidance on accounting for income taxes, we recognize income taxes using an asset and liability approach. This approach requires the recognition of taxes payable or refundable for the current year and deferred tax liabilities and assets for the future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the consolidated financial statements or tax returns. The measurement of current and deferred taxes is based on provisions of the enacted tax law. The effects of future changes in tax laws or rates are not anticipated.

The authoritative guidance provides for recognition of deferred tax assets if the realization of such deferred tax assets is more likely than not to occur based on an evaluation of all available evidence, both positive and negative, and the relative weight of the evidence. We have determined that at this time it is more likely than not that deferred tax assets attributable to all other items will not be realized, primarily due to uncertainties related to the ability to utilize net operating loss carryforwards before they expire. Accordingly, we have established a valuation allowance for such deferred tax assets which we do not expect to realize. If there is a change in the ability to realize deferred tax assets for which a valuation allowance has been established, then the tax valuation allowance may decrease in the period in which we determine that realization is more likely than not. Likewise, if we determine that it is not more likely than not that deferred tax assets will be realized, then a valuation allowance may be established for such deferred tax assets and the tax provision may increase in the period in which we make the determination. See Note 12 - Income and Other Taxes in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information related to income taxes.

Purchase Accounting

The Company accounts for acquisitions of businesses under the acquisition method of accounting. Under the acquisition method of accounting, the Company records assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their estimated fair value on the date of acquisition. Goodwill is measured as the excess of the fair value of the consideration transferred over the fair value of the identifiable net assets. Estimated fair values of acquired assets and liabilities are provisional and could change as additional information is received. When appropriate, our estimates of the fair values of assets and liabilities acquired include assistance from independent third-party valuation firms. Valuations are finalized as soon as practicable, but not later than one year from the acquisition date. Any subsequent changes to purchase price allocations result in a corresponding adjustment to goodwill.

Inventory, long-lived assets, goodwill, and other intangible assets generally represent the largest components of our acquisitions. Inventory is valued utilizing net realizable value method. Property, plant, and equipment is valued utilizing a cost and market approach. Intangible assets are recognized at their estimated fair values as of the date of acquisition and generally consist of customer relationships, technology, IPR&D, and trademarks. Determination of the estimated fair value of intangible assets requires judgment. The estimated fair value of technology, IPR&D, and trademarks, is determined utilizing the relief from royalty method. Under this form of income approach, a royalty rate based on observed market royalties is applied to projected revenue supporting the technology, IPR&D, and trademarks and discounted to present value. The estimated fair value of customer relationships is determined using the multiple period excess earnings method. Under this form of income approach, net cash flows attributable to the subject asset are typically calculated net of fair returns on and of all assets that are necessary to realize the cash flows. Cash flows of the subject intangible asset are charged amounts representing a return of and a return on these contributory assets (based on the fair values of the contributory assets).

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

The were no recently adopted accounting pronouncements.

Recent Accounting Standards or Updates Not Yet Effective
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In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures, a final standard on improvements to income tax disclosures. The standard requires disaggregated information about a reporting entity's effective tax rate reconciliation as well as information on income taxes paid. The standard is intended to benefit investors by providing more detailed income tax disclosures that would be useful in making capital allocation decisions and applies to all entities subject to income taxes. The new standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2024. This accounting standard is effective in the first quarter of the Company's fiscal year ended September 30, 2026. The Company does not expect the adoption of this new guidance to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.

NOTE 3.     Acquisitions

On April 29, 2022, we completed the acquisition of the L3H S&N business for a total purchase price of approximately $5.0 million in cash, exclusive of transaction costs and expenses and subject to certain post-closing working capital adjustments, resulting in a final adjusted purchase consideration transferred of $4.9 million. Following the closing, S&N results are included in our consolidated financial statements beginning on the acquisition date. Revenue and net income of S&N of $31.1 million and $4.2 million, respectively, is included in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023. Revenue and net income of S&N from the acquisition date of $10.1 million and $0.5 million, respectively, is included in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

On August 9, 2022, we completed the acquisition of EMCORE Chicago, pursuant to which we acquired substantially all of KVH’s assets and liabilities primarily related to its FOG and Inertial Navigation Systems business, including property interests in the Tinley Park facility located at 8412 West 185th St., Tinley Park, Illinois (the “Tinley Park Facility”), for aggregate consideration of approximately $55.0 million, exclusive of transaction costs and expenses and subject to certain post-closing working capital adjustments. Following the closing, EMCORE Chicago results are included in our consolidated financial statements beginning on the acquisition date. Revenue and net loss of EMCORE Chicago of $35.9 million and $14.8 million, respectively, is included in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023. The loss was primarily attributable to the impairment and write off of goodwill of $15.9 million. Revenue and net income of EMCORE Chicago from the acquisition date of $6.1 million and $0.7 million, respectively, is included in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022.

Final Purchase Price Allocation

The total purchase price for the S&N acquisition was allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. Since the acquisition, the purchase price allocation for S&N changed by a $2.3 million reduction to contract assets and a $0.6 million reduction to the asset retirement obligation, resulting in a corresponding increase to intangible assets and goodwill acquired. Goodwill is measured as the excess of the fair value of the purchase consideration transferred over the fair value of the identifiable net assets.
The table below represents the final purchase price allocation to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed of S&N based on their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date based on management’s best estimates and assumptions:
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(in thousands)Amount
Tangible assets acquired:
Accounts receivable$803 
Inventory370 
Contract assets3,920 
Operating lease right-of-use assets1,529 
Property, plant, and equipment1,996 
Net pension benefit assets1,727 
Intangible assets acquired2,740 
Goodwill3,108 
Liabilities assumed:
Accounts payable(1,226)
Accrued expenses(622)
Contract liabilities(6,024)
Operating lease liabilities(1,565)
Asset retirement obligations(1,895)
Total purchase consideration$4,861 

The total purchase price for the EMCORE Chicago acquisition was allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on the estimated fair values as of the acquisition date. Since the acquisition, the purchase price allocation for EMCORE Chicago changed by a $3.3 million reduction to inventory resulting in a corresponding increase to intangible assets and goodwill acquired. Goodwill is measured as the excess of the fair value of the purchase consideration transferred over the fair value of the identifiable net assets.

The table below represents the final purchase price allocation to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed of EMCORE Chicago based on their estimated fair values as of the acquisition date based on management’s best estimates and assumptions:
(in thousands)Amount
Tangible assets acquired:
Accounts receivable$4,977 
Inventory7,479 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets1,483 
Property, plant, and equipment14,442 
Intangible assets acquired13,470 
Goodwill15,867 
Liabilities assumed:
Accounts payable(1,699)
Accrued expenses(485)
Contract liabilities(637)
Other long-term liabilities(8)
Total purchase consideration$54,889 

Included in intangible assets acquired as of September 30, 2023 are customer relationships of $3.0 million, technology of $2.4 million, IPR&D of $5.9 million, and trademarks of $2.2 million.

For the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, the Company incurred transitional and transaction costs of approximately $4.3 million and $6.1 million, respectively, in connection with the S&N and EMCORE Chicago acquisitions, which were expensed as incurred and included in SG&A within the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss.

Unaudited Pro Forma Financial Information

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The following unaudited pro forma financial information presented for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022 does not purport to be indicative of the results of operations that would have been achieved had the acquisition been consummated on October 1, 2021, nor of the results which may occur in the future. The pro forma amounts are based upon available information and certain assumptions that the Company believes are reasonable.

Year Ended September 30, 2022
(in thousands, except per share data)
EMCORE
(excluding EMCORE Chicago)
EMCORE ChicagoPro Forma
Adjustments
Pro Forma Combined
Revenue
$118,029 $31,757 $ $149,786 
Cost of revenue
89,486 24,347 683 (a)114,516 
Gross profit
28,543 7,410 (683)35,270 
Operating expense:
Selling, general, and administrative
33,294 9,670 (4,102)(a)(b)38,862 
Research and development
18,401 4,946 (1,057)(a)(b)22,290 
Severance
1,357 (4) 1,353 
Gain on sale of assets
(2,685)  (2,685)
Impairment charge
2,956   2,956 
Total operating expense
53,323 14,612 (5,159)62,776 
Operating loss
(24,780)(7,202)4,476 (27,506)
Other (expense) income:
Interest expense, net
(139) (1,060)(c)(1,199)
Foreign exchange gain
(352)  (352)
Pension income
148   148 
Other income 137  137 
Total other expense
(343)137 (1,060)(1,266)
Loss before income tax benefit
(25,123)(7,065)3,416 (28,772)
Income tax benefit (expense)
139 (42)(19)(d)(e)78 
Net loss
(24,984)(7,107)3,397 (28,694)
Foreign exchange translation adjustment
172   172 
Pension adjustment
441   441 
Comprehensive loss
$(24,371)$(7,107)$3,397 $(28,081)
Per share data:
Net loss per basic share:
$(0.67)$ $(0.77)
Weighted-average number of basic and diluted shares outstanding
37,269$ 37,269

(a) Reflects the impact to depreciation expense and amortization expense as a result of the change in fair value of property, plant, and equipment and intangible assets acquired. Adjustment was made to the unaudited pro forma combined statements of operations for the nine months ended September 30, 2022.

(b) Reflects the deduction of various sales, general, and administrative and research and development expenses allocated from corporate overhead to EMCORE Chicago during the periods presented that will not be incurred on an ongoing basis as a result of existing EMCORE management structures in place, which will provide the same support to EMCORE Chicago upon completion of the transition services agreement entered into between EMCORE and KVH in connection with the EMCORE Chicago acquisition. Amounts were estimated based on historical allocation included in the stand-alone financial statements of EMCORE Chicago. However, actual costs to be incurred associated with corporate support may vary under the EMCORE structure.

(c) Reflects the impact of interest expense related to cash from borrowing facility for funding of the transaction.

(d) Reflects the current tax expense due to additional income and deferred income tax expense related to deferred tax liability generated from annual tax amortization of indefinite-lived assets that were acquired for the periods presented. Such amounts were determined based on the effective tax rate of EMCORE rather than statutory tax rates as a result of a tax valuation allowance covering substantially all deferred tax assets and the existence of tax loss carryforwards present at both entities.
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(e) Reflects the deduction of the income tax expense related to the FIN 48 liability of EMCORE Chicago that is not assumed by EMCORE.

NOTE 4.    Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash

The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheets that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the consolidated statements of cash flows:
September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Cash$4,332 $19,485 
Cash equivalents21,879 5,614 
Restricted cash495 520 
Total cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash$26,706 $25,619 

NOTE 5.    Accounts Receivable, net

The components of accounts receivable, net consisted of the following:
September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Accounts receivable, gross$15,931 $14,160 
Allowance for credit loss(356)(337)
Accounts receivable, net$15,575 $13,823 

The following table summarizes changes in the allowance for credit loss:
Year Ended September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Balance at beginning of period$337 $260 
Additions from acquisitions 106 
Provision adjustment - expense, net of recoveries193 229 
Write-offs and other deductions(174)(258)
Balance at end of period$356 $337 

Certain of our customers are billed based on fee schedules that are agreed upon in each customer contract. Contract assets represent accrued revenues that have not yet been billed to the customers due to certain contractual terms other than the passage of time and were $8.4 million and $3.8 million as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Contract liabilities represent payments received in advance of providing services under certain contract and were $1.6 million and $5.3 million as of September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. Revenue recognized in the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022 relating to contract liabilities as of the beginning of the respective fiscal year was $5.3 million and $0.4 million, respectively.

NOTE 6.    Inventory

The components of inventory consisted of the following:
September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Raw materials$14,503 $6,257 
Work in-process9,76618,251
Finished goods4,6361,774
Inventory$28,905 $26,282 

NOTE 7.    Property, Plant, and Equipment, net

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The components of property, plant, and equipment, net consisted of the following:
September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Land$ $995 
Building 8,805 
Equipment31,658 29,224 
Furniture and fixtures1,576 1,394 
Computer hardware and software3,220 3,230 
Leasehold improvements9,442 6,851 
Construction in progress2,508 4,130 
Property, plant, and equipment, gross$48,404 $54,629 
Accumulated depreciation(32,887)(30,053)
Property, plant, and equipment, net$15,517 $24,576 

Depreciation expense totaled $2.7 million and $1.4 million during the fiscal years ended September 30, 2023 and 2022, respectively. During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, the Company sold certain equipment and recognized a gain on sale of assets of $1.1 million.

During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2023, for the reporting unit formerly known as Aerospace & Defense, an indication of goodwill impairment (after electing to quantitatively test goodwill) was a trigger to test long-lived assets. Recoverability of the long-lived assets was measured by comparing the carrying amount of the asset groups to the future net undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated by the asset groups. The comparison indicated that the assets were recoverable.

During the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022, there was a triggering event of negative cash flows and operating losses at the FOG asset group level within the Inertial Navigation product line that indicated the carrying amounts of our long-lived assets may not be recoverable. In accordance with ASC 360, with regard to our long-lived assets, we performed an undiscounted cash flow analysis and concluded that the carrying value of the asset group was not recoverable. Accordingly, we then performed an analysis to estimate the fair value of the other long -lived assets and recognized an impairment charge within operating expenses of $3.0 million against the FOG property, plant, and equipment by the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group’s other long-lived assets exceeded their estimated fair value for the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022. Key assumptions utilized in the determination of fair value include expected future cash flows and working capital requirements. While we believe the expectations and assumptions about the future are reasonable, they are inherently uncertain.

On December 13, 2022, EMCORE Chicago consummated the sale of the real property interests in the Tinley Park Facility to 8400 W 185TH STREET INVESTORS, LLC (the “Tinley Park Buyer”), resulting in net proceeds of approximately $10.3 million, pursuant to the terms of that certain Purchase and Sale Agreement (the “Tinley Park Purchase Agreement”) dated as of November 1, 2022, by and between EMCORE Chicago and HSRE Fund VII Holding Company, LLC, an affiliate of the Tinley Park Buyer. In connection with the sale of the real property interests in the Tinley Park Facility, we entered into a long-term Single-Tenant Triple Net Lease (the “Lease Agreement”) with the Tinley Park Buyer pursuant to which we leased back the Tinley Park Facility for a 12 year term commencing on December 13, 2022, unless earlier terminated or extended in accordance with the terms of the Lease Agreement.

Geographical Concentrations

Long-lived assets consist of land, building, property, plant, and equipment. As of September 30, 2023 and 2022, approximately all of our long-lived assets were located in the United States.

NOTE 8.    Intangible Assets and Goodwill

Intangible assets arose from the acquisition of SDI in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2019 and the acquisitions of S&N and EMCORE Chicago in the fiscal year ended September 30, 2022. Intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of: (a) 7.0 years for patents (b) 8.0 years for customer relationships, and (c) 2.0-8.0 years for technology. IPR&D is indefinite-lived until completion of the related development project, at which point amortization of the carrying value of the technology will commence. If it is determined that the IPR&D will not come to completion, it is impaired at that time. A certain Company trademark is indefinite-lived.

The following table summarizes changes in intangible assets, net:
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September 30,
(in thousands)20232022
Balance at beginning of period$14,790 $167 
Additions from acquisition1,47014,740
Write off due to impairment(2,125) 
Amortization(1,890)(117)
Balance at end of period$12,245 $14,790 

During the fiscal year ended September 31, 2023, in accordance with ASC 350, the Company performed a quantitative (Step 1) analysis to determine the fair value of a certain Company trademark. The Company utilized the relief from royalty method and concluded that the carrying value of such trademark of $2.2 million exceeded the fair value and impairment expense of $1.3 million was recorded. Key assumptions utilized in the determination of fair value include expected future revenues and estimated royalty rates. While we believe the expectations and assumptions about the future are reasonable, they are inherently uncertain.

With respect to EMCORE Chicago's acquired IPR&D, those projects were completed in the quarter ended December 31, 2022 and were classified as technology assets and assigned an eight-year useful life. With respect to a certain IPR&D project arising from the acquisition of S&N, it was determined during the quarter ended September 31, 2023, that the Company would abandon the project underlying the remaining IPR&D and the carrying value of $0.8 million was impaired.

The weighted average remaining useful lives by definite-lived intangible asset category are as follows:
(in thousands, except weighted average remaining life)September 30, 2023

Weighted Average Remaining Life (in years)Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Book Value
Technology13.0$16,901 $(9,527)$7,374 
Customer relationships4.04,690 (674)4,016 
Definite-lived intangible assets total$21,591 $(10,201)$11,390 

As of September 30, 2023 trademarks were approximately $0.9 million.

(in thousands, except weighted average remaining life)September 30, 2022

Weighted Average Remaining Life (in years)Gross Carrying AmountAccumulated AmortizationNet Book Value
Technology5.4$10,991 $(8,261)$2,730 
Customer relationships4.63,260 (50)3,210 
Definite-lived intangible assets total$14,251 $(8,311)$5,940 

As of September 30, 2022 IPR&D and trademarks was approximately $6.7 million and $2.2 million, respectively.

Estimated future amortization expense for intangible assets recorded by the Company at September 30, 2023 is as follows:
(in thousands)